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Killing the Mosquitoes in Your Fiction

06-11-2021 · But they do spray….garlic! Mosquitoes hate garlic. So they use a garlic spray around the park that humans can’t smell but is decidedly anti-skeeter. In other words, Disney World had a major problem and found a way to fix it. Like with your novel. First, you have to drain your novel of swampland.

06-11-2021

by James Scott Bell
@jamesscottbell

Dave Barry once said that the best time to visit Florida’s Disney World is 1965. Makes sense to me. I never saw the value in taking out a second mortgage to pack the family into a metal tube for a six-hour flight to an extended stay in a hot and humid swamp when we have Disneyland an hour away by car.

I once went golfing in Florida. It wasn’t the gators who eyed me on the tenth fairway that bothered me so much as the dang humidity. I felt like I had hot, wet towels draping my entire body, including my head. Swinging a club in a steam bath is not my idea of a good time.

And then there’s the skeeters. We have them in L.A., of course. But Florida has 80 different species of mosquito. They range from mere pests to carriers of potentially deadly pathogens. A perfect spot for a theme park!

Thus, when the Disney World location was selected, one of the first issues was, How are we going to get people to come to the Magic Kingdom in the middle of mosquito country?

Certainly that was on Walt Disney’s mind from the jump. So it was serendipity when Walt met a man named Joe Potter at the 1964 World’s Fair in New York. This impressive gent was a graduate of West Point and MIT (engineering). As one bio puts it:

During World War II, he directed logistical planning for the invasion of northern France, an operation nicknamed “Red Ball Express.” After the war, he served in Washington, D.C. as assistant chief of engineers for Civil Works and Special Projects.

In 1956, President Dwight D. Eisenhower tapped Potter to serve as governor of the Panama Canal Zone. You know what they have in Panama? Skeeters the size of canned hams. Carrying malaria, no less. One of Potter’s duties was figuring out how to control the blood suckers. Which he did.

Which is why Walt hired Joe Potter right there at the World’s Fair.

So Potter set about his task, and the first order of business was to take away the mosquitoes’ favorite breeding ground, standing water. Potter drained all the surrounding swampland and turned it into drainage ditches, so water would constantly flow.

Inside the park, you won’t find any standing water. There’s always a fountain or some sort of watery movement so the bugs can’t lay eggs.

Then there’s the architecture. Every building in Disney World is designed so that water from rain runs right off and has nowhere to collect.

And the flora: Disney World eschews plants that have soil where water can puddle.

And the fish: Disney World stocks their pools with the kind that love to eat mosquito larvae.

Now, someone may ask, why doesn’t Disney World just use a pesticide? The answer is, Walt was against it. He wanted to preserve the environment.

But they do spray….garlic! Mosquitoes hate garlic. So they use a garlic spray around the park that humans can’t smell but is decidedly anti-skeeter.

In other words, Disney World had a major problem and found a way to fix it.

Like with your novel.

First, you have to drain your novel of swampland. That’s any part of your story that is squishy, serves no purpose, doesn’t build on anything or provide a foundation for essential story material. The primary sign is a scene with no conflict or tension. Get rid of any such scene.

Second: keep the tension flowing. In every scene there should be the rushing waters of direct conflict, or at least the babbling brook of inner tension. Upon revision, look at every scene and see if you can ratchet up the tension by 10%. Doing that over and over throughout the novel creates tremendous momentum. (See also the tips from Becca Puglisi here.)

Third, eliminate any prose that feels like standing water. Cut flab and write tight. Every word counts. (You might try running sections through the free Hemingway app.) Keep special watch for the type of skeeter known as the adverb. Almost always you can squish them without any adverse effect.

Finally, spray the book down with the garlic of a good proof reader. Typos are like those annoying little mosquitoes called No-see-ums. They’re so small you almost don’t notice them, but man can they bite. Kill every one of them with extreme prejudice.

Then sit back, relax, and enjoy the release of your pest-free novel!

So…do you notice certain kinds of mosquitoes popping up in your fiction? What do you do to hunt them down?

*Research for this post came primarily from here and here.

Wake Up Call (Maroon 5 song)

12-01-2022 · "Wake Up Call" is a song by American pop rock band Maroon 5. It was released on July 6, 2007, as the second single from their second studio album It Won't Be Soon Before Long (2007). The band performed the song on 45th at Night, which originally included a special guest Eve for the remix version, but never officially recorded. However, the band later requested artist Mary J. Blige, …

12-01-2022
2007 single by Maroon 5
Wiki letter w.svg
This article is missing information about the song's development and commercial performance. Please expand the article to include this information. Further details may exist on the talk page. (September 2020)
2007 single by Maroon 5
Maroon5-WakeUpCall.jpg"Wake Up Call"Single by Maroon 5from the album It Won't Be Soon Before LongB-side
  • "Story"
  • "Losing My Mind"
ReleasedJuly 6, 2007 (2007-07-06)Length3:21LabelA&M OctoneSongwriter(s)
  • Adam Levine
  • James Valentine
Producer(s)
  • Mike Elizondo
  • Mark "Spike" Stent
  • Sam Farrar
  • Mark Endert
Maroon 5 singles chronology
"Makes Me Wonder"
(2007)
"Wake Up Call"
(2007)
"Won't Go Home Without You"
(2007)
Music video"Wake Up Call" on YouTube

"Wake Up Call" is a song by American pop rock band Maroon 5. It was released on July 6, 2007, as the second single from their second studio album It Won't Be Soon Before Long (2007). The band performed the song on 45th at Night, which originally included a special guest Eve for the remix version, but never officially recorded.[1] However, the band later requested artist Mary J. Blige, with musician Mark Ronson to do the song's official remix version.[2] The remix was released on November 13, 2007, and included on both the album's international limited deluxe edition and Call and Response: The Remix Album.

It is also featured on the television shows, Entourage and The Hills. Before the release of "Wake Up Call", the band promoted by performing it a half-step lower. The song was BBC Radio 1 playlisted for the playlist week beginning July 18, 2007. As of June 2014, the song has sold 1,821,000 copies in the US.[3]

Background

The band confirmed the song as the album's second single on MTV's Total Request Live on May 29, 2007.[citation needed]

Music video

The music video for "Wake Up Call" is directed by Jonas Åkerlund and was filmed in Los Angeles in July 2007. The video is presented as a trailer for an imaginary NC-17-rated film. It features Adam Levine's leading lady for the video, Kim Smith, talking with the suspicious Levine, asking for his forgiveness since she had sex with another man whom Levine doesn't know and who serves as the antagonist. As the video progresses, Levine arrives home and hears noises coming from the bedroom. He kicks down the door and catches his girlfriend cheating on him with the other man (played by Jeremy Sisto). As his girlfriend tries to break up the fight while attempting to explain the reason of her infidelity, Levine immediately shoots him in the chest, killing him in the process while his girlfriend watched in horror as her lover dies. Levine covers up the body and drags it out of the bedroom. The rest of the video centers around the other members of Maroon 5 whom they committed different crimes, while Levine and Smith are going through an elaborate plan to cover up the murder. At the end of the video, Levine gets arrested and taken to custody.

Director's cut version

A director's cut version includes additional scenes from the original video, with James Valentine giving the finger while getting a mug shot and the ending scene where Levine getting sentenced to death for the murder.[4]

Track listing

CD Promo
No.TitleLength
1."Wake Up Call" (Album Version)3:21
UK 2-track CD single
No.TitleLength
1."Wake Up Call" (Album Version)3:21
2."Story" (Non-LP Version)4:30
Australia 2-track CD single 1744499
No.TitleLength
1."Wake Up Call" (Album Version)3:21
2."Losing My Mind" (Non-LP Version)3:22
CD single [Enhanced]
No.TitleLength
1."Wake Up Call" (Album Version)3:21
2."Losing My Mind" (Non-LP Version)3:21
3."Makes Me Wonder" (Harry Choo Choo Romero's Bambossa Mix)6:06
4."Wake Up Call" (Video) 
5."Won't Go Home Without You" (Video) 

Charts and certifications

Chart (2007–2008) Peak
position
Australia (ARIA)[5] 19
Austria (Ö3 Austria Top 40)[6] 17
Belgium (Ultratip Flanders)[7] 3
Belgium (Ultratip Wallonia)[8] 10
Canada (Canadian Hot 100)[9] 6
Canada AC (Billboard)[10] 43
Canada CHR/Top 40 (Billboard)[11] 5
Canada Hot AC (Billboard)[12] 1
CIS (Tophit)[13] 10
Czech Republic (Rádio – Top 100)[14] 72
Denmark (Tracklisten)[15] 26
Germany (Official German Charts)[16] 41
Ireland (IRMA)[17] 35
Italy (FIMI)[18] 8
Netherlands (Dutch Top 40)[19] 20
Netherlands (Single Top 100)[20] 27
New Zealand (Recorded Music NZ)[21] 32
Poland (LP3)[22] 45
Scotland (OCC)[23] 33
Switzerland (Schweizer Hitparade)[24] 12
UK Singles (OCC)[25] 33
US Billboard Hot 100[26] 19
US Adult Contemporary (Billboard)[27] 19
US Adult Top 40 (Billboard)[28] 3
US Mainstream Top 40 (Billboard)[29] 8
Venezuela Pop Rock (Record Report)[30] 3
Chart (2007) Position
Australia (ARIA)[31] 96
CIS (Tophit)[32] 49
Switzerland (Schweizer Hitparade)[33] 75
US Adult Top 40 (Billboard)[34] 35
Chart (2008) Position
Canada (Canadian Hot 100)[35] 99
CIS (Tophit)[36] 123
US Adult Top 40 (Billboard)[37] 27
Region Certification Certified units/sales
Australia (ARIA)[38] Gold 35,000^
Canada (Music Canada)[39] Platinum 80,000*
Mexico (AMPROFON)[40] 4× Platinum Gold 270,000*
Mexico (AMPROFON)[40]
Pre-loaded
Platinum Gold 150,000*
United States (RIAA)[41] 2× Platinum 1,821,000[3]

* Sales figures based on certification alone.
^ Shipments figures based on certification alone.

Release history

Release dates and formats for "Wake Up Call"
Region Date Format Version(s) Label Ref.
Russia July 6, 2007 Contemporary hit radio Original Universal [42]
United States July 17, 2007 A&M/Octone [43]
United Kingdom August 27, 2007 CD single Polydor [44]
Germany August 31, 2007 Universal [45][46]
Australia September 3, 2007 [47]
Various November 13, 2007 Digital download Remix A&M Octone [48]

References

  1. ^ "Maroon 5 – Wake Up Call (MTV 45th At Night)". The Maroon 5 Blog. Retrieved October 18, 2018.
  2. ^ "New Music: Maroon 5 f/ Mary J. Blige – 'Wake Up Call (Remix)'". Rap-Up. Retrieved February 2, 2019.
  3. ^ a b Trust, Gary (June 15, 2014). "Ask Billboard: MAGIC!'s 'Rude' Revives Reggae". Billboard. Prometheus Global Media.
  4. ^ "New Maroon 5 Video - 'Wake Up' (Director's Cut)". Stereogum. August 2, 2007. Retrieved January 7, 2019.
  5. ^ "Maroon 5 – Wake Up Call". ARIA Top 50 Singles.
  6. ^ "Maroon 5 – Wake Up Call" (in German). Ö3 Austria Top 40.
  7. ^ "Maroon 5 – Wake Up Call" (in Dutch). Ultratip.
  8. ^ "Maroon 5 – Wake Up Call" (in French). Ultratip.
  9. ^ "Maroon 5 Chart History (Canadian Hot 100)". Billboard. Retrieved 26 July 2020.
  10. ^ "Maroon 5 Chart History (Canada AC)". Billboard. Retrieved 26 July 2020.
  11. ^ "Maroon 5 Chart History (Canada CHR/Top 40)". Billboard. Retrieved 26 July 2020.
  12. ^ "Maroon 5 Chart History (Canada Hot AC)". Billboard. Retrieved 26 July 2020.
  13. ^ Maroon 5 — Wake Up Call. Tophit. Retrieved 11 August 2019.
  14. ^ "ČNS IFPI" (in Czech). Hitparáda – Radio Top 100 Oficiální. IFPI Czech Republic. Note: Change the chart to CZ – RADIO – TOP 100 and insert 200749 into search. Retrieved 6 September 2018.
  15. ^ "Hitlisten.NU – Maroon 5 – Wake Up Call" (in Danish). Tracklisten.
  16. ^ "Maroon 5 – Wake Up Call" (in German). GfK Entertainment charts.
  17. ^ "Irish-charts.com – Discography Maroon 5". Irish Singles Chart. Retrieved 18 January 2020.
  18. ^ "Maroon 5 – Wake Up Call". Top Digital Download.
  19. ^ "Nederlandse Top 40 – week 36, 2007" (in Dutch). Dutch Top 40.
  20. ^ "Maroon 5 – Wake Up Call" (in Dutch). Single Top 100. Retrieved 14 June 2019.
  21. ^ "Maroon 5 – Wake Up Call". Top 40 Singles.
  22. ^ "Notowanie nr 1340" (in Polish). 5 October 2007. Retrieved 18 January 2021.
  23. ^ "Official Scottish Singles Sales Chart Top 100". Official Charts Company. Retrieved 14 June 2019.
  24. ^ "Maroon 5 – Wake Up Call". Swiss Singles Chart.
  25. ^ "Official Singles Chart Top 100". Official Charts Company.
  26. ^ "Maroon 5 Chart History (Hot 100)". Billboard.
  27. ^ "Maroon 5 Chart History (Adult Contemporary)". Billboard.
  28. ^ "Maroon 5 Chart History (Adult Pop Songs)". Billboard.
  29. ^ "Maroon 5 Chart History (Pop Songs)". Billboard.
  30. ^ "Pop Rock" (in Spanish). Record Report. September 29, 2007. Archived from the original on July 2, 2007.
  31. ^ "ARIA Charts – End Of Year Charts – Top 100 Singles 2007". Australian Recording Industry Association. Retrieved January 8, 2011.
  32. ^ "CIS Year-End Radio Hits (2007)". Tophit. Retrieved 11 August 2019.
  33. ^ "Schweizer Jahreshitparade 2007" (in German). Retrieved June 14, 2019.
  34. ^ "Adult Pop Songs – Year-End 2007". Billboard. Retrieved September 22, 2019.
  35. ^ "Year-End Charts – Canadian Hot 100 2008". Billboard. Retrieved June 14, 2019.
  36. ^ "CIS Year-End Radio Hits (2008)". Tophit. Retrieved 11 August 2019.
  37. ^ "Adult Pop Songs – Year-End 2008". Billboard. Retrieved September 22, 2019.
  38. ^ "ARIA Charts – Accreditations – 2014 Singles" (PDF). Australian Recording Industry Association. Retrieved June 21, 2014.
  39. ^ "Canadian single certifications – Maroon 5 – Wake Up Call". Music Canada. Retrieved May 24, 2014.
  40. ^ a b "Certificaciones" (in Spanish). Asociación Mexicana de Productores de Fonogramas y Videogramas. Retrieved July 2, 2021. Type Maroon 5 in the box under the ARTISTA column heading and Wake Up Call in the box under TÍTULO
  41. ^ "American single certifications – Maroon 5 – Wake Up Call". Recording Industry Association of America.
  42. ^ "Maroon 5 — Wake up Call".
  43. ^ "Archived copy". fmqb.com. Archived from the original on 28 December 2007. Retrieved 12 January 2022.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  44. ^ "Wake up Call".
  45. ^ "Wake up Call".
  46. ^ "Wake up Call".
  47. ^ "The ARIA Report: Issue 913" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-02-22.
  48. ^ ""Wake Up Call" (Mark Ronson Remix) by Maroon 5 feat. Mary J. Blige". Who Sampled. Retrieved September 21, 2021.
Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Wake_Up_Call_(Maroon_5_song)&oldid=1065218609"
24 (season 2) - Wikipedia

05-11-2021 · The second season of the American drama television series 24, also known as Day 2, was first broadcast from October 29, 2002, to May 20, 2003 on Fox.The season begins and ends at 8:00 a.m. The season premiere originally aired without commercial interruption, and has an extended running time of approximately 51 minutes, as opposed to the standard 43 minutes.

05-11-2021
Season of television series
24 Season 2 poster.jpg24Season 2
Promotional poster
Starring
  • Kiefer Sutherland
  • Sarah Wynter
  • Elisha Cuthbert
  • Xander Berkeley
  • Penny Johnson Jerald
  • Carlos Bernard
  • Dennis Haysbert
Country of originUnited StatesNo. of episodes24ReleaseOriginal networkFoxOriginal releaseOctober 29, 2002 (2002-10-29) –
May 20, 2003 (2003-05-20)Season chronology
← Previous
Season 1
Next →
Season 3
List of episodes

The second season of the American drama television series 24, also known as Day 2, was first broadcast from October 29, 2002, to May 20, 2003 on Fox. The season begins and ends at 8:00 a.m. The season premiere originally aired without commercial interruption, and has an extended running time of approximately 51 minutes, as opposed to the standard 43 minutes.

Season overview

The second season is set 18 months after season one. The season's main plot follows the work of now-U.S. President David Palmer and agent Jack Bauer to stop terrorists from detonating a nuclear bomb in Los Angeles. Introduced into the situation is Kate Warner, a woman who ends up getting vital information related to CTU's mission.

This season can essentially be broken into two acts:

  1. The first act involves CTU attempting to stop a Middle Eastern terrorist cell from detonating a nuclear bomb in Los Angeles.
  2. In the second act, Jack and the CTU try to prevent a misdirected retaliatory strike from the U.S. by investigating a possibly forged piece of evidence.

Major subplots

  • Following the death of his wife and his unborn baby at the end of Season 1, Jack Bauer retires from CTU.
  • Kim is on the run, having rescued a young girl from her abusive father.
  • Kate Warner suspects that her sister's Middle Eastern fiancé is a terrorist.
  • CTU is blown up with C4 to divert resources to cripple its ability to find the bomb.
  • George Mason, Director of CTU, is exposed to a lethal dose of radiation.
  • Jack tries to repair his relationship with his daughter Kim and spends much of the day worrying about her safety.
  • Jack develops a heart condition after being tortured by terrorists.
  • President Palmer faces traitors in his own cabinet, who attempt to remove him from power to advance their own agenda.
  • The personal relationship between Tony Almeida and Michelle Dessler begins to develop.
  • The relationship between Jack Bauer and Kate Warner also begins to develop.

Summary

The season starts and ends at: 8:00 a.m. (L.A. time); the first scene of the season occurs in Seoul, South Korea (midnight, Seoul time).

The first fifteen hours deal with finding and disposing of the nuclear bomb. After the bomb is detonated away from the city, the story focuses on the United States' response to the thwarted attack, and in particular the nation's retaliation against the people responsible for planning it. A recorded conversation between a terrorist involved with the bomb and high-ranking officials of three Middle Eastern countries (which are never specified) is used to implicate those countries in the plot. However, due to Jack Bauer's doubts, Palmer is reluctant to order military action against them until he has absolute proof that the recording is genuine. A majority of his Cabinet then vote to relieve Palmer of his position as President under Section 4 of the Twenty-fifth Amendment, believing his hesitation to be a sign of indecision and weakness, and is therefore indicative of his inability to lead the country effectively. The vice president, James Prescott, is elevated to the presidency and orders military strikes against the three countries to continue.

Jack, Michelle and Tony race to find the evidence that the recording is a forgery, resulting in the discovery that a group of European and American businessmen fabricated it in order to wage war with the Middle East, and planned to benefit from the resulting skyrocketing oil prices. Once the evidence is produced, the strikes are called off and Palmer is reinstated as President, thanks largely to his ex-wife Sherry Palmer (who risks her life for the evidence, and who also had an indirect hand in the day's events). The eight cabinet members and Vice President tender their resignations (Palmer does not accept them), and Palmer then tells his staff that he believes that the strictest evidence of hostile intent is required before waging war. The President does however, relieve his Chief of Staff Mike Novick, who did not support him until the eleventh hour, despite being his most trusted confidant.

Like in Season One, Season Two ends with a surprise twist. The nuclear bomb situation is resolved without massive loss of life (besides George Mason, who had radiation poisoning and convinced Jack to let him fly the plane) but President Palmer collapses after giving a speech, having been attacked with a biological weapon by Mandy in an assassination attempt. Viewers were forced to wait until the third season to see whether Palmer survived the attack. The sudden shift from a nuclear to biological threat also foreshadows the third season, which initially centers on the threat of an engineered virus being set loose on the public.

24: The Game dealt with the time between Seasons Two and Three. President Palmer is incapacitated from the biological weapon inflicted by Mandy, and many of the duties are being handled by his Vice President.

Characters

Season 2 main cast: (from left to right, back row) Sarah Wynter, Carlos Bernard, Xander Berkeley, Penny Johnson Jerald, and Dennis Haysbert; (from left to right, front row) Kiefer Sutherland and Elisha Cuthbert
For a more thorough list, see List of 24 characters § 24: Season 2.

Starring

  • Kiefer Sutherland as Jack Bauer (24 episodes)
  • Sarah Wynter as Kate Warner (24 episodes)
  • Elisha Cuthbert as Kim Bauer (22 episodes)
  • Xander Berkeley as George Mason (15 episodes)
  • Penny Johnson Jerald as Sherry Palmer (13 episodes)
  • Carlos Bernard as Tony Almeida (24 episodes)
  • Dennis Haysbert as President David Palmer (24 episodes)

Guest starring

  • Reiko Aylesworth as Michelle Dessler (24 episodes)
  • Jude Ciccolella as Mike Novick (19 episodes)
  • Michelle Forbes as Lynne Kresge (18 episodes)
  • Laura Harris as Marie Warner (14 episodes)
  • John Terry as Bob Warner (12 episodes)
  • Lourdes Benedicto as Carrie Turner (10 episodes)
  • Phillip Rhys as Reza Naiyeer (10 episodes)
  • Harris Yulin as Roger Stanton (9 episodes; uncredited)
  • Skye McCole Bartusiak as Megan Matheson (8 episodes)
  • Daniel Dae Kim as Tom Baker (8 episodes)
  • Billy Burke as Gary Matheson (7 episodes)
  • Innis Casey as Miguel (7 episodes)
  • Alan Dale as Vice President Jim Prescott (7 episodes)
  • Sarah Clarke as Nina Myers (6 episodes)
  • Donnie Keshawarz as Yusuf Auda (6 episodes)
  • Paul Schulze as Ryan Chappelle (6 episodes)
  • Sara Gilbert as Paula Schaeffer (5 episodes)
  • Francesco Quinn as Syed Ali (5 episodes)
  • Tamlyn Tomita as Jenny Dodge (5 episodes)
  • Tobin Bell as Peter Kingsley (4 episodes)
  • Timothy Carhart as Eric Rayburn (4 episodes)
  • Gregg Henry as Jonathan Wallace (4 episodes)
  • Michael Holden as Ron Wieland (4 episodes)
  • Michael McGrady as Raymond Brown (4 episodes)
  • Tracy Middendorf as Carla Matheson (4 episodes)
  • Kevin Dillon as Lonnie McRae (3 episodes)
  • Glenn Morshower as Aaron Pierce (3 episodes)
  • Douglas O'Keeffe as Eddie Grant (3 episodes)
  • Al Sapienza as Paul Koplin (3 episodes)
  • Thomas Kretschmann as Max (2 episodes)
  • Randle Mell as Brad Hammond (2 episodes)
  • Rick D. Wasserman as Alex Hewitt (2 episodes)
  • Mia Kirshner as Mandy (1 episode)
  • Vicellous Shannon as Keith Palmer (1 episode)
  • Eric Christian Olsen as John Mason (1 episode)

Episodes

See also: List of 24 episodes
No.
overall
No. in
season
TitleDirected byWritten byOriginal air dateProd.
code
US viewers
(millions)
251"Day 2: 8:00 a.m. – 9:00 a.m."Jon CassarJoel Surnow & Michael LoceffOctober 29, 2002 (2002-10-29)2AFF0113.50[1]
Eighteen months after the events of Day 1, President Palmer is informed that a terrorist group called the Second Wave is planning to detonate a nuclear bomb in Los Angeles sometime this day. CTU Los Angeles is ordered to call back resigned agent Jack Bauer, who is trying to talk to Kim; but she struggles, as seeing him reminds her of her mother's death. Kim lives at the Mathesons' house, watching their daughter, Megan. Jack arrives at CTU, where Director Mason and agents Almeida, Dessler, and Schaeffer update the former of the situation. Jack leaves a message for Kim to get out of the city. He is informed that Joseph Wald, a criminal he previously worked for as cover, is affiliated with Second Wave and there is a witness who will testify against Wald. The witness is brought to CTU, where Jack kills him and prepares for his mission. Kim finds out that Megan is abused by her father Gary. Meanwhile, as the Warner family arranges for the wedding of their daughter Marie with Reza Naiyeer, a Middle Eastern man, their other daughter Kate is informed by her private investigator that Reza is apparently affiliated with terrorist organizations.
262"Day 2: 9:00 a.m. – 10:00 a.m."Jon CassarJoel Surnow & Michael LoceffNovember 5, 2002 (2002-11-05)2AFF0211.88[2]
Jack goes to the location Wald's men work and proves his loyalty by showing them the witness's head. Their boss Eddie Grant accepts Jack into the team. Another member still doubts him and searches the criminal record server for Jack's identity, which is found by CTU's hacking into the server, and Grant becomes certain. They take him on their mission, which is to explode CTU. Meanwhile, Mason gets a message and leaves CTU. Palmer meets Ron Wieland, a journalist who is informed by his sources that the threat level has been raised. He tries to convince the journalist not to talk to the press in order to avoid panic; but Weiland refuses and is detained by Secret Service. Kate's investigator requests her help in obtaining information from Reza's passport for him. Gary's wife Carla offers her car so Kim can escape with Megan. Gary stops the car and the two girls continue on foot. Kim tells Megan to stay still until she can make sure Gary has lost them. He confronts her and tries to convince her of his benevolence, but she knocks him unconscious. She returns to see Megan gone, and starts searching.
273"Day 2: 10:00 a.m. – 11:00 a.m."James Whitmore, Jr.Howard GordonNovember 12, 2002 (2002-11-12)2AFF039.88[3]
Jack warns Palmer's assistant, Lynne Kresge, about CTU. She informs the NSA Deputy Director Eric Rayburn who convinces her not to warn CTU in order to maintain Jack's cover. Grant's team takes a power supply contractor hostage and forces him to get them inside CTU, which Jack notices not to be evacuated yet. The team poses as contractors and goes in to plant the bombs while Jack stays to watch the hostage. He frees him and instructs him to go in and warn Almeida. Kresge finally decides to inform Palmer, who orders the evacuation of CTU. Grant's team leaves while Kim and Megan arrive at CTU. As the CTU is evacuating, the bombs detonate while several agents including Schaeffer are still inside. Meanwhile, Mason joins LAPD to investigate a garage where he is exposed to radioactive substance. He is informed that he only has up to a week before his death. Gary reports to the police that Kim has kidnapped Megan. The investigator tells Kate that Reza has certainly been in contact with the terrorists and also tells her to act normal until the authorities, whom he has alerted, arrive.
284"Day 2: 11:00 a.m. – 12:00 p.m."James Whitmore, Jr.Remi AubuchonNovember 19, 2002 (2002-11-19)2AFF049.91[4]
Jack calls Kresge and blames her for the CTU incident. Having found Wald's location, he kills Grant and his team and heads to the house, where he captures Wald and starts interrogating him until Wald's dog attacks Jack, giving Wald the chance to escape and take refuge in his concrete room. Jack finds breaking the door impossible and manages to convince Wald to open it. He gives Jack the identity of a contact before committing suicide. Jack finds the contact to be Nina Myers. Meanwhile, Palmer learns from Kresge that Rayburn stopped her, and he fires him. Mason returns to CTU. Kim takes Megan to a hospital, where the nurse confirms Megan's abuse and believes Kim to be responsible. She calls and informs Carla, who states she is on her way. Kate tells Bob, her father, what she has discovered and he tells her that Naiyeer is not a terrorist, and he instructs her to go with Reza in his car. She gets scared in the car but it is revealed that he only wanted to show her the house he has bought.
295"Day 2: 12:00 p.m. – 1:00 p.m."Jon CassarGil GrantNovember 26, 2002 (2002-11-26)2AFF059.13[5]
Jack informs Mason about Myers, and Mason issues her transfer to CTU where she demands a pardon in exchange for helping them. Palmer tells Jack, whose wife was murdered by Myers, about his decision to pardon her as there is no other choice. Jack finds out about Mason's condition and threatens to reveal it to Division command if Mason doesn't appoint Jack as Myers' handler. Meanwhile, Schaeffer succumbs to her wounds and Almeida leaves to investigate Reza's case. His team arrives at Bob's place, and starts interrogating Reza. Marie is shocked, and Kate explains everything to her. Palmer is joined by Roger Stanton, the NSA Director, and they meet a Middle Eastern ambassador for intel exchange. The ambassador's helicopter crashes when leaving. Gary arrives at the hospital and forces Kim to leave by threatening to call the police. She gets a call from Jack, who tells her about the bomb. She calls Miguel, her boyfriend, and tells him to join her. When he does, she tells him about the bomb and convinces him to help her break out Megan.
306"Day 2: 1:00 p.m. – 2:00 p.m."Jon CassarElizabeth M. CosinDecember 3, 2002 (2002-12-03)2AFF0611.13[6]
Jack shows the pardon document to Myers, who demands to be released before she reveals information. Jack threatens to kill her if she doesn't talk. She claims to know the location of a Second Wave insider. Jack arranges Myers to be transferred to the location. An agent is instructed to accompany them in order to watch Jack, who poisons the agent, making him unconscious. Meanwhile, Marie gets angry with Kate for her investigation. Reza reveals to CTU that Bob instructed him to transfer the funds to Second Wave accounts. David's former wife, Sherry Palmer, visits him and reveals that there has been an evacuation ordered in Los Angeles. David finds out that it was ordered by Stanton, who claims that he believed that to be David's order. David promptly cancels the order. David accepts Sherry in his team and tells her about the bomb. Gary leaves Megan's room to answer a call made by Miguel. Kim uses the opportunity to take Megan, and the trio manages to escape.
317"Day 2: 2:00 p.m. – 3:00 p.m."James Whitmore, Jr.Virgil WilliamsDecember 10, 2002 (2002-12-10)2AFF079.82[7]
Jack, Myers and other agents arrive at the location that Myers had told them about. Myers is planted a microphone and a camera before she goes in and visits the Second Wave insider. The agents storm in and capture him. Myers tries to escape, but is stopped by Jack, who hesitates to take revenge and she is rearrested. Meanwhile, Bob and Reza are issued for transfer to CTU after Bob is interrogated. Mason calls his son, who dislikes him, and tells him to meet him at CTU. His son refuses and Mason brings him in by force. Mason reveals his condition and they say goodbye. Novick, David's Chief of Staff, joins him; and David states that he is trying to find Sherry's source. David begins to suspect that Stanton is working against him and teams up with Sherry, Novick and Kresge to investigate Stanton. Kresge begins to dislike Sherry. The two women have an argument witnessed by David who warns Sherry about her conduct. Kim, Miguel and Megan keep traveling in Gary's car until a policeman stops them, finding Carla's body in it, and he arrests them.
328"Day 2: 3:00 p.m. – 4:00 p.m."James Whitmore, Jr.Joel Surnow & Michael LoceffDecember 17, 2002 (2002-12-17)2AFF089.42[8]
Myers tries to make the insider talk at the location, but fails. They get in the plane back to CTU. In the air, Myers manages to get a lead on the location of the bomb before she kills the insider. She tells Jack that she is the only one to know (the locations of the bomb and of Syed Ali) now. The plane is shot by an unknown party. Meanwhile, three Second Wave operatives have an argument while transferring the bomb. Two are killed and the third one continues alone. At CTU, Bob reveals to Almeida that he is a CIA consultant and states that he is not a terrorist. Kate meets an analyst who investigates the accounts more. They find the name Syed Ali, a known terrorist affiliated with Second Wave. As the two leave the house, they are abducted by Second Wave thugs. David notices Wieland, having escaped detainment by an agent's help, revealing his knowledge to the press. Kim tells the policeman, who has brought them to the office, about the bomb, hoping to get released and Megan not be returned to Gary.
339"Day 2: 4:00 p.m. – 5:00 p.m."Rodney ChartersHoward GordonJanuary 7, 2003 (2003-01-07)2AFF099.97[9]
David accuses Sherry of breaking out Wieland. The plane crashes and Jack sees military operatives killing the survivors. He and Myers escape and resist until CTU forces arrive and kill the attackers. Having secured a rifle, Myers takes Jack hostage and demands a pardon for an upcoming crime, the murder of Jack. He tells David to accept it. Myers reveals the location of Ali. Meanwhile, Reza states that he is ready to cooperate, making Bob angry, and that needs to go to his office for this. An agent is instructed to accompany him. Almeida and Dessler find out about Mason's condition and decide to let him remain in charge in his last hours. Sherry and Kresge continue having arguments. Kate and the analyst are brought to Ali, who instructs his henchman to torture the analyst who is eventually killed. The policeman decides to take Kim and Miguel back to Los Angeles. Megan is entrusted to her aunt and says goodbye to Kim.
3410"Day 2: 5:00 p.m. – 6:00 p.m."Rodney ChartersDavid EhrmanJanuary 14, 2003 (2003-01-14)2AFF1010.41[10]
Jack is rescued from Myers. He recognizes the attacking group by their tattoos and tells David that they are a covert special ops unit working for NSA. David deduces that they were sent by Stanton. Sherry reveals Stanton's secret communication network, which can be used as evidence against him. She is revealed to be conspiring with him, and has disclosed the network in order to maintain her cover. With the newfound knowledge of the whereabouts of Syed Ali, Jack leads the team to the house where Kate is being tortured. Ali leaves and heads to a mosque to say prayers. The henchman kills himself using a cyanide capsule in his mouth. Knowing some Arabic, Kate reports Ali's intention for prayers. Jack orders a list of nearby mosques. Meanwhile, Reza and the agent find out that the account was hacked. Marie arrives and kills them both, implied to be the hacker and also affiliated with Second Wave. Almeida and Dessler get emotionally close. While being transferred, Kim and Miguel force a crash. He gets stuck and unable to escape. She calls for medical response and escapes when they arrive.
3511"Day 2: 6:00 p.m. – 7:00 p.m."Frederick King KellerGil GrantFebruary 4, 2003 (2003-02-04)2AFF1112.62[11]
CTU team tracks Ali to a mosque. Kate is instructed to dress as a Muslim woman, enter the mosque and identify Ali, which she does. Almeida informs Bob about Marie, who accesses an accomplice's workplace locker by seducing his foreman. CTU team waits for Ali to exit the mosque and be followed; but everyone gets out without signs of Ali. They storm in the mosque and find a man burning with Ali's clothes on. Jack finds out that it is a deception, and Ali is still alive and hiding. He orders the agents to continue protecting the exits. Meanwhile, David has Stanton arrested and tries to convince him to talk, but to no avail. David orders a professional agent to start torturing Stanton for information. Sherry fails to persuade David to give her a post in his staff. Kim keeps running in the woods until she gets stuck in an animal trap. She notices a cougar approaching.
3612"Day 2: 7:00 p.m. – 8:00 p.m."Frederick King KellerEvan KatzFebruary 11, 2003 (2003-02-11)2AFF1212.33[12]
Jack informs the mosque cleric of the situation. CTU manages to find Ali and Jack stops him from taking the cyanide capsule. Jack finds torture useless and the cleric tries to convince him to talk, but to no avail. CTU recovers burnt papers from Ali's clothes and hires a forensics agent to recover the writing on it. Jack instructs Kate to call Marie and keep her on the line so that she can be traced; but Marie already knows the plan and throws the phone away. Bob tells Mason that Marie studied in London when her mother died. Due to the grief, she left home for several weeks which Bob believes must have been the time period she was introduced to the terrorists. The writing is recovered and Jack forces Ali to talk by apparently killing one of his sons and threatening to kill the other. Ali reveals the airport where the plane carrying the bomb will take off. Marie joins other Second Wave operatives at the airport and they manage to prepare the bomb. It is revealed that Ali's son wasn't shot and is still alive. Kresge finds out Sherry's involvement. Kim is saved by Lonnie McRae, a hunter.
3713"Day 2: 8:00 p.m. – 9:00 p.m."Jon CassarMaurice HurleyFebruary 18, 2003 (2003-02-18)2AFF1313.14[13]
CTU team arrives at the airport. Stanton finally decides to talk and reveals a special ops team to be at the airport ordered to kill Second Wave operatives and recover the bomb, an action that will trigger a more strict military policy by the U.S. government. David orders Secret Service to grant Sherry access to the inside facility as she has connections with a Senator revealed to be Stanton's accomplice. CTU finds six commandos with the tattoo dead at the place. Stanton reveals that there were seven. CTU finds the plane and stops it, capturing the pilot and recovering a device, which the experts find to be a decoy and not the bomb. David asks Stanton for more information, and he reveals Sherry's involvement. Meanwhile, Kim takes refuge in McRae's secluded house. He is informed by a policeman of her charges, but she convinces him of her innocence. She tells him about the bomb and he shows her a bunker he has made for nuclear catastrophes. He listens to radio and states that the bomb has just detonated. They rush to the bunker.
3814"Day 2: 9:00 p.m. – 10:00 p.m."Jon CassarJoel Surnow & Michael LoceffFebruary 25, 2003 (2003-02-25)2AFF1412.64[14]
David confronts Sherry, who manages to prove to him that she was leading a secret investigation with a CIA agent against Stanton and offered cooperation with Stanton as cover. David decides to expel her from the facility instead of having her arrested. CTU starts interrogating the pilot. Kate tracks Marie who tries to kill her, but CTU manages to capture her. Jack starts torturing her, and Kate tries to persuade her to talk. She finally gives a location, but Jack deduces that it is another decoy and orders a full search of the perimeter. They manage to find the bomb, which experts say could blow any time. With his condition worsening, Mason leaves CTU and appoints Almeida as the Director. Carrie Turner, an agent from Division sent for assistance, is revealed to have a personal problem with Dessler. Kim finds out that there has been no explosion and pulls a knife on McRae, who states that he only wanted company. She insists on leaving and he decides to let her go after giving her a gun to be able to defend herself.
3915"Day 2: 10:00 p.m. – 11:00 p.m."Ian ToyntonRobert CochranMarch 4, 2003 (2003-03-04)2AFF1513.15[15]
CTU discovers that defusing the bomb is impossible and it must be delivered to the Mojave desert for a safe detonation while the pilot can't leave the plane in order to make the hit accurate, making it a suicide mission. Mason arrives and offers to be the pilot; but Jack refuses and chooses to do it himself. Kim is disturbed by a driver, but she uses her gun to force him to leave. A woman picks her up. She calls Jack and finds out about his mission. She leaves the car and continues on foot. Meanwhile, CTU recovers a recording from Ali's house seemingly proving the support of three Middle Eastern governments of the terrorist attack. Yusuf Auda, an agent working for one of those governments, is at CTU for updates, but Almeida doesn't tell him anything. The Joint Chiefs prepare the Armed Forces for Palmer's decision to retaliate; but he decides to hold for now. Jack flies the plane to the location. On the way, he finds out that Mason has boarded. He convinces Jack to let him do it and save his own life. Jack jumps out with a parachute, lands and watches the explosion along with Palmer and Kim, who believes Jack has died.
4016"Day 2: 11:00 p.m. – 12:00 a.m."Ian ToyntonHoward Gordon & Evan KatzMarch 25, 2003 (2003-03-25)2AFF1612.09[16]
Jack is returned to CTU. Dessler asks Ali about the recording, which he denies any involvement with. Almeida doesn't believe his claim and tells Palmer that the recording is authentic. Dessler tells Jack about Ali's claim. While Ali is being transferred to Guantanamo, Jack tells him that his son is alive and asks him about his claim, which Ali confirms before he is killed by an unknown sniper. Jack feels certain that the recording is fake but Almeida still doesn't believe it. The authorities push Palmer to order the assault based on the recording which they believe to be authentic, before he gets a call from Jack. Palmer says Jack has a few hours to prove his claim that it is a fake before the assault starts. Jack gets a call from an unknown man with the tattoo who claims to have evidence that disproves the recording, and the man will yield it if Kate is delivered to him. Dessler helps Jack abduct Kate. Turner witnesses this and informs Almeida who intercepts Jack, but Almeida breaks his ankle and the duo escapes. Meanwhile, Kim is allowed into a closed store to use the bathroom. A man breaks into the store. The police arrive and surround the store, and the intruder critically shoots the store clerk in an ensuing struggle.
4117"Day 2: 12:00 a.m. – 1:00 a.m."Jon CassarEvan Katz & Gil GrantApril 1, 2003 (2003-04-01)2AFF1712.48[17]
While Jack and Kate head to the location requested by the tattooed man, they notice Auda following them, and Jack includes him in the plan. They arrive and Jack goes in alone. The man introduces himself as Jonathan Wallace, the seventh member who killed the other six at the airport. He explains that the people he worked for control petroleum in the Caspian Sea. They wanted to trigger a U.S. assault on the Middle East in order to make a huge revenue. He claims to have the source recordings that were assembled to make the fake one. His employers killed his transport team and he needs Kate's contacts to leave the country. As Wallace puts her in the trunk, they are attacked by a third party. Meanwhile, Vice President Jim Prescott gets angry for Palmer's decision to hold the invasion. Almeida questions Dessler, who denies helping Jack. He instructs Turner to watch her. Dessler gets a call from her brother, Danny, who seems to hate Turner. Kim manages to escape from the store, and the police storm in, critically shooting the intruder and capturing him.
4218"Day 2: 1:00 a.m. – 2:00 a.m."Jon CassarJoel Surnow & Michael LoceffApril 8, 2003 (2003-04-08)2AFF1811.75[18]
Auda holds the third party attackers while the others go into the building, where Jack calls Michelle and asks for satellite images showing the place of the mercenaries. The four manage to kill some of the attackers and escape in the car, but Wallace is critically shot. Almeida finds out about Michelle's deed and she gets him on the phone with Jack, who explains that Wallace doesn't want CTU involved. They get to a hospital where Wallace succumbs to his wound. Jack recovers a chip planted under Wallace's skin. Meanwhile, riots start in various cities across the U.S. with hostility towards Middle Easterners. Palmer orders the National Guard and the Army to protect the foreigners and settle the riots. Kim explains her adventures to the police who tell her the original charges against her are being dropped, as they have confirmed that Gary Matheson killed his wife, though she still has to deal with the charges of escaping police custody. She calls Almeida, who reveals to her that Jack is alive and promises to free her. She talks to Miguel on the phone who says that he doesn't want to see her again and hangs up before he is revealed to have lost his right leg in the crash.
4319"Day 2: 2:00 a.m. – 3:00 a.m."James Whitmore, Jr.Howard GordonApril 15, 2003 (2003-04-15)2AFF1911.77[19]
Auda finds a transponder on the chip. Jack takes the transponder and escapes with it while Auda and Kate escape with the chip. Jack is captured by the mercenaries and they start torturing him for the chip. Jack almost dies as a result of the pressure, and they try to revive him. In the meantime, Auda and Kate are attacked by three street criminals, who start beating up Auda because of his race. At CTU, Michelle explains to Almeida that Turner got involved with Danny, who was married and had children. She ended the affair while he lost his family and his job for it and attempted suicide. Danny arrives at CTU to talk to Michelle before he sees Turner and assaults her. Almeida and Michelle get romantically involved. Kresge notices that Prescott is assembling the Cabinet members and asks Novick about it. He reveals that Prescott is trying to invoke the Section 4 of the 25th Amendment of the Constitution, which gives the Cabinet the authority to depose the President and replace him with the Vice President. Kresge tries to inform Palmer, but Novick locks her in a room and orders an agent to watch her.
4420"Day 2: 3:00 a.m. – 4:00 a.m."James Whitmore, Jr.Neil CohenApril 22, 2003 (2003-04-22)2AFF2011.94[20]
The mercenaries force a doctor to revive Jack. Peter Kingsley, one of the masterminds, orders the second in command to kill the boss man and continue the torture, which he does. Jack convinces the doctor to help him escape. Jack kills the mercenaries and gets Kingsley's name. Meanwhile, the thugs take Auda's belongings and decide to leave. Kate demands the chip and offers money in her house in exchange for it. Jack arrives and a dying Auda reveals Kate's whereabouts. Jack arrives at Kate's and kills one of the thugs, while the other two hide in a room with the chip. Ryan Chappelle arrives at CTU and designates the preparation of domestic response to the invasion as the sole task. Turner finds out that Almeida and Dessler are still following Jack's lead and tells Chappelle, who decides to keep Almeida because of the lack of human resources. Kresge escapes the room, but falls from the stairs and is critically injured, unable to talk to Palmer. Prescott assembles the Cabinet and they discuss Palmer's capability to run the Office in his absence.
4521"Day 2: 4:00 a.m. – 5:00 a.m."Ian ToyntonRobert Cochran & Howard GordonApril 29, 2003 (2003-04-29)2AFF2112.05[21]
Jack captures the thug and recovers the chip. He finds it damaged and tells Almeida to check Kingsley's name. Kate blames herself for not watching after Marie better, but Jack tells her that it was out of her hands. He talks to Kim, who is released and being transferred. Almeida and Dessler find a hacker named Alex Hewitt, possibly involved in fabricating the Cyprus recording. Jack heads to Hewitt's location, where he hides when Sherry arrives to find Hewitt for her own plan. Meanwhile, Novick tells David about the meeting, which they join. Prescott questions David's ability. He then brings Wieland for testimony. Then Stanton joins them on a video chat, revealing that he was innocent and tortured for nothing. David asks them to play of the rest of the interrogation tape, but Prescott states that there is no more. Finally Prescott asks for the evidence David claims to disprove the recording, and David states that it hasn't been obtained yet. The voting begins and David is deposed with 8 votes against 7. Prescott detains David, swears in as the President and orders the troops to move towards the three accused countries.
4622"Day 2: 5:00 a.m. – 6:00 a.m."Ian ToyntonVirgil Williams & Duppy DemetriusMay 6, 2003 (2003-05-06)2AFF2213.49[22]
Jack locks up Sherry and her bodyguard and finds out her involvement. They capture Hewitt, who will testify in exchange for immunity. David convinces agent Aaron Pierce, appointed to watch him, to get him a cell phone so that he can talk to Jack for updates. CTU is informed of David's deposition, and Almeida informs Jack about it. Almeida tells Chappelle about Hewitt and asks for a helicopter to pick up Jack, which he denies. Chappelle also tells Almeida that he has been reassigned, essentially firing Almeida. Kim arrives at Matheson's to collect her belongings, not knowing that Gary is there. He kills the police officer who escorted Kim there, and attacks Kim, who hides in the ceiling. Dessler lures Chappelle to a room, where Almeida knocks him unconscious and sends the helicopter. Novick finds out about the phone and takes it from David, having Pierce arrested and another agent assigned to watch David. Kim overpowers Gary and takes his gun. She calls Jack for help, and he tells her to kill Gary in self-defense, which she does. He calls Kate and asks her to go and pick up Kim. Hewitt stabs Sherry and escapes, and Jack gives chase.
4723"Day 2: 6:00 a.m. – 7:00 a.m."Jon CassarGil Grant & Evan KatzMay 13, 2003 (2003-05-13)2AFF2312.72[23]
Hewitt gets critically wounded, needing the helicopter fast. Division agents arrive and find Chappelle, who returns the helicopter and has Almeida arrested while Dessler is working in a van outside. Hewitt succumbs to his wounds and Jack returns to Sherry and asks her for another way. She explains that they need to use Kingsley's confession. Dessler helps Jack produce Hewitt's phonetic template before she is found and arrested. Sherry calls Kingsley and plays Hewitt's forged voice, proving his presence. She arranges a deal to deliver him in exchange for taking the evidence Kingsley has against her. While driving to the location, Jack has a heart attack as a result of the immense torture he experienced previously, resulting in a crash. Meanwhile, Max and Trepkos are revealed to be Kingsley's co-conspirators. Novick informs David that a nearby country needs the latter's authorization to allow the U.S. military planes to pass, as David's deposition hasn't been made public yet. David agrees to talk to that country's head of state. David enlists the help of an operative from the Justice Department for his claim. Kate arrives and recovers Kim.
4824"Day 2: 7:00 a.m. – 8:00 a.m."Jon CassarTeleplay by : Joel Surnow & Michael Loceff
Story by : Robert Cochran & Howard Gordon
May 20, 2003 (2003-05-20)2AFF2414.20[24]
Jack and Sherry hijack a car and continue. The DOJ operative tells Novick about his findings; and the latter orders Chappelle to help Jack prove his claim. Sherry has a microphone put on her and enters the Los Angeles Coliseum, where she manages to deceive Kingsley to confess the recording's forgery and his involvement in it. Jack kills the snipers and attacks Kingsley's men while Sherry escapes. Jack manages to kill the mercenaries before he has another heart attack. Kingsley attempts to kill him before being fatally shot by CTU agents. Prescott decides to abort the attack as a result of the new evidence. He revokes his succession and offers David his resignation, which the latter refuses. However, the latter tells Novick that he expected his complete support and thus fires him. Kate and Kim arrive and reunite with Jack. Max tells Trepkos that he has another plan to trigger the war. Almeida and Dessler are released and the former stands up to Chappelle, who leaves the CTU building with Turner. Palmer gives a speech outside before he collapses as a result of being poisoned by Mandy.

Production

Season 2 marked the first of three uses of the show's Air Force One set. Xander Berkeley's character spent much of the season dying of radiation poisoning and various actors commented that they thought the story played out very well.[25] Kiefer Sutherland became a producer for the second season. In an interview, he joked that "Fox originally did not want to give me a raise so they gave me a title."[26] In the same interview, Sutherland mentions that he tried suggesting a storyline detail which got rejected by the writers.[26] One idea that did get accepted by the writers was Carlos Bernard's idea to mention London's "Finsbury Park Mosque" during an interrogation scene.[25] Shortly after the season aired, authorities raided this mosque, having discovered that radical groups were indeed meeting there.[27]

Trailer

The original trailer titled "Get Ready" aired in early September 2002, slightly more than a month before the season premiere. It is only 15 seconds long and features a number of shots from season 2 in quick succession. It ends with Jack telling his daughter that she has to leave Los Angeles.[28]

Reception

The second season received critical acclaim, scoring a Metacritic rating of 83/100 based on 23 reviews.[29] On Rotten Tomatoes, the season has an approval rating of 94% with an average score of 7.2 out of 10 based on 18 reviews. The website's critical consensus reads, "24's sophomore outing is not as elegantly structured as its predecessor, but the series firmly puts to rest any fears that its propulsive thrills were a one-time novelty."[30]

For this season, Kiefer Sutherland won the Screen Actors Guild Award for Outstanding Performance by a Male Actor in a Drama Series and the Satellite Award for Best Actor – Television Series Drama (for the second time in a row). Sean Callery, the show's composer won the Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Music Composition for a Series. The alleged absurdity of Kim Bauer's run-in with the cougar has created an enduring reference in the television review community.[31][32][33][34]

Award nominations

Organization Category Nominee(s) Result
Primetime Emmy Awards Outstanding Drama Series Jon Cassar, Robert Cochran, Howard Gordon, Brian Grazer, Michael Loceff, Tony Krantz, Norman Powell, Joel Surnow, Kiefer Sutherland Nominated
Outstanding Lead Actor in a Drama Series Kiefer Sutherland Nominated
Outstanding Directing for a Drama Series Ian Toynton Nominated
Outstanding Music Composition for a Series, Dramatic Underscore Sean Callery Won
Outstanding Single-Camera Picture Editing for a Series Chris Willingham Won
Outstanding Single-Camera Picture Editing for a Series Chris Willingham, David Latham Nominated
Outstanding Casting for a Drama Series Debi Manwiller, Peggy Kennedy, Richard Pagano Nominated
Outstanding Single-Camera Sound Mixing for a Series William Gocke, Mike Olman, Ken Kobett Nominated
Outstanding Stunt Coordination Eddy Donno Nominated
Golden Globe Awards Best Drama Series Nominated
Best Actor in a Drama Series Kiefer Sutherland Nominated
Best Supporting Actor Dennis Haysbert Nominated
Screen Actors Guild Awards Outstanding Performance by a Male Actor in a Drama Series Kiefer Sutherland Won
Satellite Awards Best Drama Series Nominated
Best Actor in a Drama Series Kiefer Sutherland Won
Best Supporting Actress in a Drama Series Sarah Clarke Won
Best Supporting Actor in a Drama Series Dennis Haysbert Nominated
Writers Guild of America Awards Episodic Drama Evan Katz Won
Producers Guild of America Awards Television Producer of the Year Award in Episodic - Drama Brian Grazer, Tony Krantz, Howard Gordon, Robert Cochran, Joel Surnow, Cyrus Yavneh Won
Television Critics Association Awards Outstanding Achievement in Drama Nominated
Individual Achievement in Drama Kiefer Sutherland Nominated

Home media releases

The second season was released on DVD in region 1 on September 9, 2003 (2003-09-09)[35] and in region 2 on August 11, 2003 (2003-08-11).[36]

References

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  2. ^ "National Nielsen Viewership (Nov. 4-10)". The Los Angeles Times. November 13, 2002. Retrieved April 10, 2021 – via Newspapers.com.Free to read
  3. ^ "National Nielsen Viewership (Nov. 11-17)". The Los Angeles Times. November 20, 2002. Retrieved April 10, 2021 – via Newspapers.com.Free to read
  4. ^ "National Nielsen Viewership (Nov. 18-24)". The Los Angeles Times. November 27, 2002. Retrieved April 10, 2021 – via Newspapers.com.Free to read
  5. ^ "National Nielsen Viewership (Nov. 25-Dec. 1)". The Los Angeles Times. December 4, 2002. Retrieved April 10, 2021 – via Newspapers.com.Free to read
  6. ^ "National Nielsen Viewership (Dec. 2-8)". The Los Angeles Times. December 11, 2002. Retrieved April 10, 2021 – via Newspapers.com.Free to read
  7. ^ "National Nielsen Viewership (Dec. 9-15)". The Los Angeles Times. December 18, 2002. Retrieved April 10, 2021 – via Newspapers.com.Free to read
  8. ^ "National Nielsen Viewership (Dec. 16-22)". The Los Angeles Times. December 25, 2002. Retrieved April 10, 2021 – via Newspapers.com.Free to read
  9. ^ "National Nielsen Viewership (Jan. 6-12)". The Los Angeles Times. January 15, 2003. Retrieved April 10, 2021 – via Newspapers.com.Free to read
  10. ^ "National Nielsen Viewership (Jan. 13-19)". The Los Angeles Times. January 22, 2003. Retrieved April 10, 2021 – via Newspapers.com.Free to read
  11. ^ "National Nielsen Viewership (Feb. 3-9)". The Los Angeles Times. February 12, 2003. Retrieved April 10, 2021 – via Newspapers.com.Free to read
  12. ^ "National Nielsen Viewership (Feb. 10-16)". The Los Angeles Times. February 21, 2003. Retrieved April 10, 2021 – via Newspapers.com.Free to read
  13. ^ "National Nielsen Viewership (Feb. 17-23)". The Los Angeles Times. February 26, 2003. Retrieved April 10, 2021 – via Newspapers.com.Free to read
  14. ^ "National Nielsen Viewership (Feb. 24-Mar. 2)". The Los Angeles Times. March 5, 2003. Retrieved April 10, 2021 – via Newspapers.com.Free to read
  15. ^ "National Nielsen Viewership (Mar. 3-9)". The Los Angeles Times. March 12, 2003. Retrieved April 10, 2021 – via Newspapers.com.Free to read
  16. ^ "National Nielsen Viewership (Mar. 24-30)". The Los Angeles Times. April 2, 2003. Retrieved April 10, 2021 – via Newspapers.com.Free to read
  17. ^ "National Nielsen Viewership (Mar. 31-Apr. 6)". The Los Angeles Times. April 9, 2003. Retrieved April 10, 2021 – via Newspapers.com.Free to read
  18. ^ "National Nielsen Viewership (Apr. 7-13)". The Los Angeles Times. April 16, 2003. Retrieved April 10, 2021 – via Newspapers.com.Free to read
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  20. ^ "National Nielsen Viewership (Apr. 21-27)". The Los Angeles Times. April 30, 2003. Retrieved April 10, 2021 – via Newspapers.com.Free to read
  21. ^ "National Nielsen Viewership (Apr. 28-May. 4)". The Los Angeles Times. May 7, 2003. Retrieved April 10, 2021 – via Newspapers.com.Free to read
  22. ^ "National Nielsen Viewership (May. 5-11)". The Los Angeles Times. May 14, 2003. Retrieved April 10, 2021 – via Newspapers.com.Free to read
  23. ^ "National Nielsen Viewership (May. 12-18)". The Los Angeles Times. May 21, 2003. Retrieved April 10, 2021 – via Newspapers.com.Free to read
  24. ^ "National Nielsen Viewership (May. 19-25)". The Los Angeles Times. May 29, 2003. Retrieved April 10, 2021 – via Newspapers.com.Free to read
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  26. ^ a b "Cast of "24" discuss TV show". Larry King Live. CNN. January 20, 2007. Retrieved July 18, 2012.
  27. ^ "Fact and Fiction Mix on 24". Fox News. May 11, 2003. Retrieved July 18, 2012.
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  29. ^ "24: Season 2". Metacritic. Retrieved July 11, 2013.
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  32. ^ Young, Susan (January 21, 2010). "Plausibility? Huh? 7 wacky moments from 24". MSNBC. Archived from the original on December 31, 2012. Retrieved July 20, 2012.
  33. ^ Marnell, Blair (May 24, 2010). "The Top 5 WTF Moments From 24". Crave Online. Archived from the original on January 1, 2013. Retrieved July 20, 2012.
  34. ^ Keveney, Bill (August 12, 2003). "Damsel Kim is back to distressing 24 fans". USA Today. Retrieved July 20, 2012.
  35. ^ "24 - Season 2". TVShowsOnDVD. Archived from the original on May 25, 2011. Retrieved November 26, 2010.
  36. ^ "24: Complete Season 2". Amazon.co.uk. Retrieved January 2, 2009.

External links

  • 24 at IMDb
  • Season 2 on 24 Wiki
Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=24_(season_2)&oldid=1053698653"

Page 2

Season of television series
Season of television series
24 Season 1 poster.jpg24Season 1
Promotional poster
Starring
  • Kiefer Sutherland
  • Leslie Hope
  • Sarah Clarke
  • Elisha Cuthbert
  • Dennis Haysbert
Country of originUnited StatesNo. of episodes24ReleaseOriginal networkFoxOriginal releaseNovember 6, 2001 (2001-11-06) –
May 21, 2002 (2002-05-21)Season chronology
Next →
Season 2
List of episodes

The first season of the American drama television series 24, also known as Day 1, was first broadcast from November 6, 2001, to May 21, 2002 on Fox. The season's storyline starts at midnight and ends at the following midnight on the day of the California presidential primary.

Season overview

The first season takes place on the day of the California Presidential Primary.

The season's main plot revolves around an assassination attempt on U.S. Senator from Maryland, David Palmer, a candidate for the Democratic Party presidential nomination, on the day of the primary in California. The central character is Jack Bauer, a former Delta Force operator who is the Director of the fictional Counter Terrorist Unit (CTU) in Los Angeles. Bauer becomes professionally as well as personally involved when his wife Teri and daughter Kim are kidnapped by the people behind the assassination plot.

The season is divided into two halves; the first revolves around a mercenary group's efforts to control Jack Bauer by kidnapping his wife and daughter and forcing him to kill Senator Palmer. This culminates in Jack's successful rescue of his family. In the second half, a second wave of assassins is discovered. As CTU tracks their activities, Jack learns why he and the Senator are being targeted, and motions to counter against the assassins.

Fox initially ordered only 13 episodes—the successful rescue at the end of the season's first half was planned as a series finale in the event that the show was not renewed.

Major subplots

The show rotates between the points of view of each of the five main cast members: Jack Bauer, Teri Bauer, Nina Myers, Kim Bauer, and David Palmer, as well as one main villain—Mandy for the first three hours, followed by Ira Gaines, Andre Drazen, and finally Victor Drazen. The day's situations—both ongoing events and the relationships between these five characters and their associates—form the basis for the season's subplots.

  • A mole at CTU is sabotaging efforts to stop the assassination.
  • Jack finds himself in situations where he confronts his complex personal definition of compromise.
  • Members of the Bauer family are rebuilding their relationships now that Jack has moved home after being separated from Teri for six months.
  • There are tensions between Jack and two of his co-workers: Nina Myers and Tony Almeida. Nina is in a relationship with Tony but she was previously involved with Jack.
  • Political scandals threaten to erupt when the press learns that Palmer's daughter had been raped seven years ago and that Palmer's son was accused of killing the rapist.
  • Kim begins to have feelings for Rick Allen, even though he was originally hired to kidnap her.
  • Teri develops personal problems as a result of the day's stress and revelations.
  • After Sherry Palmer lies to her husband and tries to undermine his campaign, David Palmer realizes that she is only using their marriage to further her political ambitions.
  • Jack endures personal anguish when he is forced to choose between protecting David Palmer and protecting his wife and daughter.

Summary

Season 1 starts and ends at 12:00 a.m. PST. The season's first half centers on the efforts of a terrorist cell led by Ira Gaines to assassinate presidential candidate David Palmer. They kidnap Jack Bauer's wife and daughter in order to force him to aid in the assassination and take the fall for Palmer's death. Jack eventually defeats this cell and Gaines in the process of saving his wife and daughter, but this only leads to information about a second group of terrorists who had employed the first cell. The second cell is led by those ultimately responsible for the day's events: Andre and Alexis Drazen.

Two years ago, to the day, Bauer was sent as part of a classified team to Kosovo on the orders of a secret U.S. Congressional panel headed by Palmer to kill Victor Drazen, Slobodan Milošević's "shadow." In order to keep Operation Nightfall totally secret, the panel never met nor knew the team of operatives, nor did the team know the panel. Therefore, Palmer and Bauer never knew about each other. The Drazens found out about both Palmer's and Bauer's involvement in the attack against their father and the death of his daughter and his wife. Incidentally, Bauer was believed to be the only operative still alive, and the whole assassination plot was to practice revenge: Palmer would be dead, Jack would be imprisoned for the assassination, and his family would be killed.

During the last few episodes, the plot twists revealed many surprises. It was revealed that Bauer's team had only killed Drazen's body double. Drazen's wife and daughter, however, were inadvertently killed, prompting the "eye for an eye" aspect of the plot: as Drazen's wife and daughter died, so would Bauer's wife and daughter. Viewers also discovered that the real Victor Drazen is a top secret, unofficial prisoner of the U.S. government, and the Drazens' primary goal was to free Victor Drazen.

Eventually, to satisfy the Drazens, Palmer's death is faked. The Drazens recapture Bauer's daughter Kim and offer to exchange her life for Bauer's. However, Kim escapes and the Drazens soon learn that Palmer is still alive. With time running out on his chance to escape before he is recaptured, in desperation, the freed Victor Drazen tells his mole inside CTU, who is revealed to be Nina Myers, to call Bauer and tell him that his daughter is dead and that the U.S. Coast Guard has found her body. Drazen knows that a grieving Jack will attack him, and he believes he, his son Andre Drazen (the other, Alexis, having been seriously injured earlier by an aide to Sen. Palmer and later dying of his wounds during transportation to the Drazen hideout) and their henchmen can kill Jack. Nina is reluctant, knowing that if Drazen's plan fails, Jack will very quickly learn that Kim is not dead and that, since Nina lied to him, she must be the mole. However Nina does tell this lie to Jack.

Drazen's plot backfires rather spectacularly, as an enraged Jack kills Drazen's son and guards, and in the process corners Victor Drazen before killing him, after both have exchanged fire in a shootout. Afterwards, Jack Bauer speaks with a member of the Coast Guard to arrange to claim his daughter's body. The Coast Guard informs Bauer that they did not find a body that night. Bauer realizes that Nina Myers is the mole. He calls George Mason and tells him to detain Myers, but Myers, who heard that Bauer had survived, was already preparing for exfiltration by erasing all the incriminating information of herself on CTU's computer. Bauer's wife, Teri, is confused about the events surrounding Jack's attempt to rescue their daughter, and looks for Myers, whom she trusts. Teri realizes that Myers is the mole, however, and Myers ties her to a chair. Jack comes to CTU and lets the agents take Myers into custody (as opposed to killing her). He then discovers his wife's body in the chair with a fatal gunshot wound to her abdomen. The season ends with Jack cradling his dead wife in his arms, while he constantly tells her he is sorry.

Characters

Season 1 main cast: (from left to right) Elisha Cuthbert, Leslie Hope, Kiefer Sutherland, Dennis Haysbert, and Sarah Clarke
For a more thorough list, see List of 24 characters § 24: Season 1.

Starring

  • Kiefer Sutherland as Jack Bauer (24 episodes)
  • Leslie Hope as Teri Bauer (24 episodes)
  • Sarah Clarke as Nina Myers (24 episodes)
  • Elisha Cuthbert as Kim Bauer (24 episodes)
  • Dennis Haysbert as Senator David Palmer (24 episodes)

Special guest stars

  • Carlos Bernard as Tony Almeida (23 episodes)
  • Penny Johnson Jerald as Sherry Palmer (22 episodes)
  • Richard Burgi as Kevin Carroll (11 episodes)
  • Dennis Hopper as Victor Drazen (5 episodes)
  • Lou Diamond Phillips as Mark DeSalvo (2 episodes)

Guest starring

  • Daniel Bess as Rick Allen (18 episodes)
  • Željko Ivanek as Andre Drazen (15 episodes)
  • Xander Berkeley as George Mason (12 episodes)
  • Michael Massee as Ira Gaines (12 episodes)
  • Vicellous Shannon as Keith Palmer (12 episodes)
  • Jude Ciccolella as Mike Novick (11 episodes)
  • Karina Arroyave as Jamey Farrell (10 episodes)
  • Zach Grenier as Carl Webb (9 episodes)
  • Glenn Morshower as Aaron Pierce (9 episodes)
  • Tanya Wright as Patty Brooks (8 episodes)
  • Eric Balfour as Milo Pressman (8 episodes)
  • Misha Collins as Alexis Drazen (7 episodes)
  • Matthew Carey as Dan Mounts (6 episodes)
  • Megalyn Echikunwoke as Nicole Palmer (6 episodes)
  • Jacqui Maxwell as Janet York (6 episodes)
  • Silas Weir Mitchell as Eli Stram (6 episodes)
  • Navi Rawat as Melanie (6 episodes)
  • Tamara Tunie as Alberta Green (6 episodes)
  • Rudolf Martin as Jonathon Matijevich/Martin Belkin (4 episodes)
  • Vincent Angell as Phil Parslow (4 episodes)
  • Henri Lubatti as Jovan Myovic (4 episodes)
  • Devika Parikh as Maureen Kingsley (4 episodes)
  • Kara Zediker as Elizabeth Nash (4 episodes)
  • Edoardo Ballerini as Frank Allard (3 episodes)
  • Mia Kirshner as Mandy (3 episodes)
  • Paul Schulze as Ryan Chappelle (3 episodes)
  • Currie Graham as Ted Cofell (2 episodes)
  • John Hawkes as Greg Penticoff (2 episodes)
  • Kim Murphy as Bridgit (2 episodes)
  • Michael O'Neill as Richard Walsh (2 episodes)
  • Wade Andrew Williams as Robert Ellis (2 episodes)
  • Pauley Perrette as Tanya (2 episodes)

Episodes

See also: List of 24 episodes
No.
overall
No. in
season
TitleDirected byWritten byOriginal air dateProd.
code
US viewers
(millions)
11"12:00 a.m. – 1:00 a.m."Stephen HopkinsRobert Cochran & Joel SurnowNovember 6, 2001 (2001-11-06)1AFF7911.64[1]
On the day of the California Presidential Primaries, Counter Terrorist Unit (CTU) of Los Angeles is informed of an assassination attempt on Senator David Palmer, who is running for President. CTU agent Jack Bauer is called to service while his daughter, Kim, has escaped home. His wife, Teri, starts looking for her. CTU director Walsh informs Jack that there is a mole that Jack needs to find. George Mason, an agent from district command arrives with intel, and Jack forces him to reveal the source by threatening to disclose the former's embezzlement. Meanwhile, Kim meets up with her friend, Janet York; the two meet two boys, Allen and Mounts, and go to a furniture store, where Kim and Allen get close while Janet gets drugged. Kim starts to get suspicious when they all get into the boys' car, but the boys refuse to take her home. Teri joins forces with a man named Alan York, Janet's father, to find the girls. In the meantime, David gets upset after receiving a call from his friend, Maureen Kingsley. On a plane, a woman named Mandy steals Palmer's photographer's ID and blows the plane up after jumping out.
22"1:00 a.m. – 2:00 a.m."Stephen HopkinsJoel Surnow & Michael LoceffNovember 13, 2001 (2001-11-13)1AFF018.77[2]
Walsh meets an agent in a building; and the agent gives him a keycard. They are attacked by unknown men and the agent is killed while Walsh calls Jack for help. Meanwhile, Mandy hides the ID for her partner Bridgit to find and bring once Mandy is certain that Ira Gaines, for whom she is working, has payment for the ID. When her partner arrives she demands more money than the deal. Allen and Mounts force Kim to call Teri and state that everything is fine. Teri, having cleared the mess the girls made at the store with York, realizes from Kim's tone that there is a problem. Secret Service agents, led by Aaron Pierce, arrive to enhance the protection of David, who calls his friend, Carl Webb, telling him that Kingsley will publicly accuse his son, Keith, of murdering a boy who apparently killed himself after raping David's daughter, Nicole, years ago. David leaves alone to meet Webb. Jack joins Walsh and they try to escape, but Walsh is killed after giving Jack the keycard, which contains the mole's identity, who, by agent Farrell's decryption, appears to be Nina Myers.
33"2:00 a.m. – 3:00 a.m."Stephen HopkinsJoel Surnow & Michael LoceffNovember 20, 2001 (2001-11-20)1AFF028.18[3]
Jack confronts Myers, who denies the accusation. He asks Farrell to investigate more; and Farrell finally states that Myers' account was hacked, proving her innocence. Kim and Janet manage to escape from Mounts and Allen, who give chase. The girls ask an addict for help, but he denies it. They are attacked by a thug before the addict arrives and saves them. Kim finds a cell phone and calls Teri, revealing what is happening. They keep running until Janet has a car crash and Kim is caught and abducted again; and Janet is abandoned. David meets Webb, who offers to stop Kingsley until the former wins the Primaries, but David wants the source dealt with and Webb promises to handle Keith's situation. Secret Service arrives and returns David protected. Mandy's partner gives the ID to Gaines before she is killed by a sniper who has done a facial surgery resembling the photographer. Mandy is spared after she accepts a job planned for summer. CTU Agent Tony Almeida finds out about Walsh's death and reports the situation to district, requesting Jack's deposition.
44"3:00 a.m. – 4:00 a.m."Winrich KolbeRobert CochranNovember 27, 2001 (2001-11-27)1AFF039.15[4]
CTU finds a clue, but Mason arrives with his men and issues a lockdown. Jack manages to escape and heads to the location, where he starts gunfight with a thug. A policewoman hears it and moves to investigate. Jack convinces her to help him capture the thug, who fatally shoots her and is arrested by the police. He reveals to Jack that he knows him, that Kim is in danger and Jack must free him in exchange for his help. Meanwhile, Mason is trying to find Jack by interrogating Myers and Farrell. Mounts tries to kill Janet, but an ambulance arrives and they leave. After being delayed by a policeman, Teri and Alan arrive and find out that Janet has been taken to a hospital. Mounts and Allen deliver Kim to Gaines. David is informed by Pierce of the seriousness of the situation and David reveals Keith's situation to his wife, Sherry, saying that Kingsley has acquired evidence that proves the death to be murder.
55"4:00 a.m. – 5:00 a.m."Winrich KolbeChip JohannessenDecember 11, 2001 (2001-12-11)1AFF047.60[5]
Jack is confronted by Mason, who realizes that the suspect will only talk to Jack. Jack visits the suspect and secretly gives him a note, which contains a phone number possessed by Jack. On the phone, the thug says that he will talk only after the breakout. Jack manages to steal a guard's keycard and give it to the thug. They successfully escape and head to a location designated by Gaines. Having found them by satellite images, Mason and the police arrive and the thug is rearrested. Jack and Mason recover a body which is totally mutilated. Jack heads to the hospital where Janet, Alan and Teri are. Gaines finds out that Janet is alive and kills Mounts as punishment. David arranges a meeting with Kingsley. He asks her about her sources, one being George Ferregamo, Keith's therapist, and the other an autopsy report. David wakes up Keith and asks him where he was the night Nicole was attacked, but Keith refuses to answer.
66"5:00 a.m. – 6:00 a.m."Bryan SpicerHoward GordonDecember 18, 2001 (2001-12-18)1AFF058.20[5]
CTU starts identifying the body. Myers tasks Farrell to do it and hires Milo Pressman, a contractor, for unlocking the keycard that Walsh had given to Jack. Jack arrives at the hospital, where he gets suspicious of Alan, who later smothers Janet to death, revealed not to be her father but an assassin working for Gaines. Jack gets a call from Gaines, who threatens to kill Kim if Jack doesn't follow Gaines' instructions. Jack is told to throw away his cell phone, enter a car, and wear a communication microdevice, while he is watched by a camera inside and by thugs in another car. Allen finishes burying Mounts' body. Teri keeps searching Kim with Alan. She gets a call from Myers, who asks her to tell Jack that the body is identified as Alan York, surprising Teri. Webb tells David that Keith did confront the rapist, who attacked Keith and was killed by him in self-defense. Keith asked for help from Webb, who covered it up for David's career. David gets angry and demands that Webb leave. Webb also reveals that Sherry had sent Keith to him. David blames her for not telling him; she makes the same excuse as Webb's. David meets his chief of staff, Mike Novick, who advises him to reveal the story before Kingsley does.
77"6:00 a.m. – 7:00 a.m."Bryan SpicerAndrea NewmanJanuary 8, 2002 (2002-01-08)1AFF068.31[6]
On Gaines' order, Jack arrives at CTU and Gaines instructs him to replace the keycard Pressman is working on with another one. Myers finds out what Jack has done and confronts him. Gaines orders him to abduct her somewhere secluded, which he does. He tells Myers about Kim and shoots her, apparently killing her. Almeida looks at the camera footage and finds out that Jack made Myers wear a bulletproof flak jacket; and she is revealed to be alive. Meanwhile, Allen decides to break out Kim and they formulate a plan. The man posing as Alan York gets a call from Gaines to be cautious before he is attacked by Teri, who locks him to a tree and calls Farrell at CTU for help. Gaines' men arrive, free Alan and abduct Teri. Farrell is revealed to be the mole. As Kim and Allen try to escape, she realizes that Teri has been brought there too and they decide to return. David and Keith get distant to each other. David decides to reveal Keith's story in the upcoming conference although Sherry disagrees.
88"7:00 a.m. – 8:00 a.m."Stephen HopkinsJoel Surnow & Michael LoceffJanuary 15, 2002 (2002-01-15)1AFF077.51[7]
Myers returns to CTU secretly and informs Almeida of the situation. David and Sherry arrive at a facility where he will have his conference. Jack and the sniper also arrive. Myers and Almeida find out about Farrell. They capture her secretly, as Gaines has access to the cameras, which has been provided by her. She refuses to talk until she gets immunity. Jack meets a friend at the facility and tries to warn her of the plan, but she is moved away by another inside man, ordered by Gaines. Jack is ordered to give the tools he brought to the sniper, who assembles a minirifle. The plan is to kill David with it and give it to Jack, making him the alleged murderer. David tries to reveal Keith's story, but Jack stops the sniper's attempt by attacking a Secret Service agent and being arrested while David is moved away. Gaines orders his men to kill Teri and Kim, but receives a call from Farrell, who states that the failure wasn't Jack's fault and Gaines decides to keep Teri and Kim.
99"8:00 a.m. – 9:00 a.m."Stephen HopkinsVirgil WilliamsJanuary 22, 2002 (2002-01-22)1AFF089.10[8]
Jack attempts to convince the Secret Service of his innocence, but then escapes while being transferred. He takes a woman hostage and goes to a work office at a construction site. He and the woman appear to get friendly. He calls Myers and asks for a car and other tools. He also tells Myers to force Farrell, who reveals that she accepted the job for only $300,000, to talk by threatening her son. The woman is instructed by Jack to go and check the car outside, but she escapes and informs the police. Jack manages to get to the car and escape. Meanwhile, a guard tries to rape Kim, but Teri convinces him to have sex with her instead and steals his cell phone in the process. David is safely returned to the hotel and claims to know Jack from somewhere. Sherry persuades Kingsley to hold her disclosure because it could be related to the attempt on David, but he prefers the story get revealed. Gaines calls Farrell for updates but she is found near death as a result of apparent suicide.
1010"9:00 a.m. – 10:00 a.m."Davis GuggenheimLawrence HertzogFebruary 5, 2002 (2002-02-05)1AFF099.25[9]
Myers gets a call from Teri, and Jack manages to talk to Teri and Kim, promising to find them. CTU tries to trace the call, but the guard arrives and recovers his phone. Jack is spotted by the police and they give chase. He rushes to a parking lot, where he is forced to leave his car behind in order to escape. Agent Alberta Green arrives and assumes command of CTU, adding the capture of Jack to the to-do list. She gets suspicious of Myers, who gets the identity of an accomplice named Ted Cofell. Jack calls Cofell's office and is informed that he is leaving. He arrives in time and poses as Cofell's driver. Gaines is revealed to be hired by a man named Andre Drazen, who planned the attack on David and Jack for personal reasons. Meanwhile, David is visiting an elementary school for his campaign and one of his sponsors reveals to him that the others have told Webb to get rid of Keith's problem completely, scaring David.
1111"10:00 a.m. – 11:00 a.m."Davis GuggenheimRobert CochranFebruary 12, 2002 (2002-02-12)1AFF107.60[10]
Jack takes Cofell somewhere secluded and interrogates him, who denies knowing anything about what Jack says. He states that he is headed to a meeting with Kevin Carroll, a name Jack is unfamiliar with. They head to the location, where Cofell attacks Jack, but is stopped and dies after speaking Serbian and revealing that Jack is wanted dead for personal reasons. Carroll arrives - revealed to be the man impersonating Alan York - and is captured and interrogated by Jack. Jack promises to free Carroll if he takes Jack to his family; and Carroll accepts. Meanwhile, Drazen tells Gaines that he will proceed with his own plan and orders the death of Teri and Kim. They manage to kill the guard sent for them, making the ruse that they are killed. In the meantime, David is continuing his campaign and starting to remember Jack from a mission two years ago. He is visited by Webb, who reminds the former of the consequences of not complying with his sponsors' decisions. David decides to call Ferregamo.
1212"11:00 a.m. – 12:00 p.m."Stephen HopkinsHoward GordonFebruary 19, 2002 (2002-02-19)1AFF117.98[11]
Jack enters the compound by Carroll's help. Jack locks Carroll in the trunk and proceeds to the room, where Teri and Kim have hidden the body. Allen is instructed to bring a van before he is ordered by Gaines to run an errand. They find Carroll and free him, who reveals Jack's presence. Allen escapes and takes a van. Jack calls Alberta Green, who is interrogating Myers and Almeida after finding out about their connection with Jack, and reveals his family's situation and requests backup. Allen arrives and the Bauers get in. They start driving until they are stopped by the mercenaries and forced to continue on foot. Teri and Kim are instructed to separate and go to the extraction point. Meanwhile, David calls Ferregamo and warns him of the attempt on Ferregamo's life, which Ferregamo interprets as a threat made by David to stop the disclosure. David decides to meet Ferregamo personally, but when he arrives, he finds the office on fire and Ferregamo dead. David deduces that it was done by Webb.
1313"12:00 p.m. – 1:00 p.m."Stephen HopkinsAndrea NewmanFebruary 26, 2002 (2002-02-26)1AFF128.93[12]
Jack and Allen take shelter and Jack tells Allen that he has committed the crime of kidnapping even if he saved Kim later. Teri and Kim are found by a mercenary in an abandoned house, but Jack arrives and saves them. They head to the extraction point. Drazen orders Gaines to kill Jack in order to restore the deal. Carroll escapes and Gaines confronts Jack alone. Jack tries to convince Gaines on the radio to surrender, but is forced to kill him when he pulls his gun. Kim and Teri are rescued by CTU agents while Allen gets on a bus and leaves. Meanwhile, Kingsley decides to drop the case after hearing about Ferregamo and feeling danger to herself. David tries to dissuade her, but to no avail. He visits Webb, who states that Keith will be accused of arson if David doesn't comply. As a result, David decides not to reveal the case to the district attorney, intending to cover it up. Myers informs Green about a second assassin.
1414"1:00 p.m. – 2:00 p.m."Jon CassarJoel Surnow & Michael LoceffMarch 5, 2002 (2002-03-05)1AFF138.18[13]
Jack is interrogated by Division command director Ryan Chappelle. Teri and Kim are taken to a hospital for examination. Myers notices an unknown man who introduced himself as an FBI agent and now gone. The nurse decides to run a pregnancy test for Teri, but Myers decides to move Teri and Kim to a safe house immediately. CTU finds three potential suspects. Carroll calls Drazen and tries to make a new deal, but he and his men are killed. Green and Chappelle try to convince Almeida to testify against Jack, but he refuses. Keith gets angry after hearing that David will not disclose the story about Ferregamo, as Ferregamo meant a lot to Keith. It is revealed that Jack led a mission targeting the Drazens two years ago and was the only survivor of the team. David believes that Jack blames him for that and wants revenge. David arrives at CTU, requesting to meet Jack. Elizabeth Nash, one of David's staff meets the assassin in his hotel room and they start having sex.
1515"2:00 p.m. – 3:00 p.m."Jon CassarMichael S. ChernuchinMarch 12, 2002 (2002-03-12)1AFF148.86[14]
Using his contact, David manages to visit Jack and accuses him, but Jack is able to convince David of his innocence by revealing what his family has been through. The Drazens are revealed to want revenge for their family's death during the covert operation by killing David, who authorized the mission, and Jack, who was the only survivor. Jack and David call Robert Ellis, a former associate, and start investigating with his help. David convinces Chappelle to free Jack and let him do his job. Ellis is killed by an unknown man. Meanwhile, Teri and Kim are brought to a safe house. Teri finds out that she is pregnant before Kim finds out too. Teri tries to tell Jack on the phone. Myers starts debriefing Teri and Kim. Kim fails to save Rick because Teri is debriefed first and reveals his contribution. It is revealed that Jack was involved with Myers when he moved out. Myers tells Teri that it is over now. The assassin is revealed to be Alexis Drazen, Andre's brother.
1616"3:00 p.m. – 4:00 p.m."Stephen HopkinsRobert Cochran & Howard GordonMarch 19, 2002 (2002-03-19)1AFF159.20[15]
Secret Service informs David's staff of the three suspects, one being Alexis, whom Nash identifies and is brought to CTU for debrief. Mason is sent to CTU to assist Jack and they decide to forget the past to finish the mission. Jack convinces Nash to cooperate by returning to Alexis. Myers leaves the safe house to accompany Jack on his mission. While the debrief continues, the safe house is attacked by Andre's henchmen. Teri and Kim escape with a car. On the road, Teri loses the henchman and parks to see if they're still being followed. The car slides down into the valley and explodes, apparently killing Kim inside. Teri has a mental trauma and collapses. She is revealed to be amnesiac when she wakes up and is picked up by a woman. Kim is revealed to have survived and continues on foot. Meanwhile, David promises Keith to watch after him from now on. Keith arranges a meeting with Webb. He sneaks out by Nicole's help and arrives at the arrangement, where he records Webb's voice stating that the latter is behind Ferregamo's death and not the former.
1717"4:00 p.m. – 5:00 p.m."Stephen HopkinsMichael S. ChernuchinMarch 26, 2002 (2002-03-26)1AFF169.33[16]
CTU team, including Jack and Myers, arrives at the hotel and Jack instructs Nash to put a tracker in Alexis's wallet. He arrives and they start having sex while CTU is watching. He leaves bed to bring liquor and she uses the chance to put the tracker. Suddenly, she critically stabs him and the agents storm in and arrest both of them. Alexis's cell phone rings and Jack answers for him, arranging a meeting with the caller. Meanwhile, Teri only recalls a restaurant nearby and the woman drops her there, where the waiter recognizes her and calls her former boyfriend Doctor Phil Parslow, who arrives and recovers her, promising to cure her amnesia. Kim calls CTU and Almeida picks up, but she believes she can't trust CTU because of experiencing Farrell and thus goes to the house Allen is staying. His girlfriend, Melanie, is not happy to see her. Keith plays his recording to David and gives him the tape.
1818"5:00 p.m. – 6:00 p.m."Frederick King KellerMaurice HurleyApril 2, 2002 (2002-04-02)1AFF178.72[17]
Jack goes to the meeting with the money while CTU snipers are set to support him. Teddy Hanlin, an agent who has a personal problem with Jack is sent as the chief sniper. Jack meets the mercenary, who tells Jack that he will cut the power supply at a specific location before he finds out that the former is not Alexis and starts running. Jack orders the snipers not to shoot, but Hanlin disobeys and kills the runner. Meanwhile, Teri asks Parslow to take her to her house, which he does. They arrive when a mercenary has killed a CTU agent and is watching them. Mounts' brother, Frank Allard, arrives and doesn't allow Kim to leave until Mounts returns with the money, not knowing that he is dead. David plays the tape to Novick and Sherry, stating that he is going to release it. Sherry secretly opens David's safe and destroys a tape, but David reveals that it wasn't the real tape and now he knows her personality. He schedules a press conference immediately.
1919"6:00 p.m. – 7:00 p.m."Frederick King KellerJoel Surnow & Michael LoceffApril 9, 2002 (2002-04-09)1AFF188.84[18]
Myers tries to warn Jack of his family's situation, but Mason stops her to help Jack focus. Meanwhile, Teri and Parslow arrive at the house; and his friend comes to aid them. The mercenary attacks, kills Parslow's friend and wounds him. He forces her to reveal Kim's location, but Almeida arrives and kills him. Allard finds out about Mounts. He arranges a drug deal in his house and pulls his gun on the sellers intending to kill them and take the merchandise. The lead seller is revealed to be a secret DEA agent and the police storm in and arrest everyone, including Kim and Allen. At lunch, Nicole has a mental trauma when David and Sherry argue about Keith's problem. David proceeds to his press conference, where he reveals the self-defense murder of the rapist, that Keith's only crime was not reporting to the authorities, Ferregamo's murder and the former's sponsors' involvement. Keith gets happy and reconciles with David. Jack and Mason head to the location given by the mercenary in the previous episode, and they find only a transformer. Finally, they see a helicopter flying above them.
2020"7:00 p.m. – 8:00 p.m."Stephen HopkinsRobert Cochran & Howard GordonApril 16, 2002 (2002-04-16)1AFF197.70[19]
Mason is ordered to return and Jack keeps searching until he finds the entrance before being captured. He wakes up in a holding room before he meets the warden. Jack tells the warden of his mission; and the warden reveals that it is a DOD facility and a prisoner will be delivered at 7:20, a time Jack asked about. Jack plans a secured delivery and Andre's team are forced by the chief mercenary not to attack. Jack realizes that the prisoner is Victor Drazen, Andre's father and who was believed to had been killed in the operation. Jack visits Victor and asks him to persuade his sons to stop what they are doing. The facility is attacked by Andre's group. Meanwhile, Teri and Parslow are transferred by Almeida. The police don't believe Kim's story after Melanie denies it; and Kim is put in custody. David wins the honesty poll after his press conference. He and Sherry still argue about the consequences of the disclosure.
2121"8:00 p.m. – 9:00 p.m."Stephen HopkinsJoel Surnow & Michael LoceffApril 23, 2002 (2002-04-23)1AFF208.49[20]
Andre's team kills all the agents and corners Jack, who holds Victor while Andre holds the warden and Jack is forced to free Victor. The warden is killed and Jack is captured. Chappelle orders Mason to send agents to kill everyone and not try to save Jack, as Victor must not be disclosed to be alive for the government's reputation. The CTU agents arrive after Victor's group is gone. Victor decides to kill Jack, who reveals that Alexis is still alive and Victor decides to keep Jack. Meanwhile, Teri is brought to CTU and begins to remember everything. Kim has an argument with Melanie in custody room. An inmate gives drug to Melanie to avoid capture, but Kim reveals the truth and the former is taken away. Melanie confirms Kim's statement to the police and Kim is arranged for transfer to CTU, but the vehicle is attacked by mercenaries on the way and she is abducted. David wins the primaries in the states holding the Super Tuesday. He and his assistant Patricia Brooks get closer now that he is distant to Sherry.
2222"9:00 p.m. – 10:00 p.m."Paul ShapiroJoel Surnow & Michael LoceffMay 7, 2002 (2002-05-07)1AFF217.56[21]
Victor talks to Alexis on the phone and gets confirmation that Alexis is alive. Victor offers CTU the exchange of Alexis with Jack. Mason is ordered to deny it. Myers calls David, reports the situation and asks for help. Victor is welcomed by his friend and the latter's daughter. Jack takes the woman hostage to escape, but Victor chooses to kill her and keep him. The father gets angry and attacks Victor, who is forced to kill him too. Jack finds out about Kim. David offers Mason a promotion when David assumes the Oval Office if Mason agrees to perform the exchange. Alexis is returned and the tracker planted is found and thrown away. On another location, Jack is freed after he is informed that Kim will be killed if he doesn't follow instructions after release. Brooks is revealed to be hired by Sherry to get involved with David.
2323"10:00 p.m. – 11:00 p.m."Paul ShapiroRobert Cochran & Howard GordonMay 14, 2002 (2002-05-14)1AFF228.47[22]
David arranges a tryst with Brooks, but in the room, he reveals that he knows about Sherry's plan and fires Brooks from his staff. Jack is instructed to go and visit David in his hotel. Jack convinces David to order Secret Service to let him through. Alexis succumbs to his wound. Andre decides to kill Kim for it, but Victor stops him. Jack calls Victor by his cell phone and gives it to David. It is revealed that the phone contains a bomb intended to kill them both. Jack throws it away in time and they survive. The former convinces David not to reveal his survival to the press until the former saves Kim. Sherry disagrees, but to no avail. Andre calls Jack, and gets confirmation of David's death and Jack offers himself in exchange for Kim's release, which is accepted and Jack is informed of the location. Teri calls Jack and tells him about the baby. Kim manages to escape. Myers secretly reports David's survival to Andre.
2424"11:00 p.m. – 12:00 a.m."Stephen HopkinsTeleplay by : Joel Surnow & Michael Loceff
Story by : Robert Cochran & Howard Gordon
May 21, 2002 (2002-05-21)1AFF239.25[23]
The press reveals that David has survived the explosion confirmed by an inside source. He deduces it to be Sherry and confronts her. The press reveals Jack's involvement in saving David, who decides to divorce Sherry. Victor instructs Myers to tell Jack that Kim has been killed in order to pull him to a fight. Myers does so and the plan works. Jack manages to kill the Drazens and all of their men. Myers finds out and calls her German handler for extraction. Jack is informed that Kim is alive and in the meantime a video is found that shows Myers killing Farrell while Farrell was cuffed. Teri finds Myers in a room. Mason orders security to find Myers, who kills several agents on her way outside. Jack arrives and stops her. Mason convinces him not to kill her and she is arrested and taken away. Jack finds Teri in the room dead, implied to have been murdered by Myers.

Production

The first season introduced split screens into 24, a feature which continued to play a role in all of the seasons, especially the early ones. Editors originally wanted the boxes showing separate characters to overlap but Stephen Hopkins decided not to do this.[24] The writers were intentionally secretive about whether Teri Bauer would be killed in the final episode. To cast doubt about the outcome, three endings were filmed, two of which showed that Teri survived.[24] Writers Joel Surnow and Robert Cochran originally planned for Teri to survive, but half-way through the season, they decided that a happy ending would not be as satisfying. They instead went with the ending where Teri dies. Surnow explained, "It made the show feel more real. And it gives our audience a sense when they're going to watch the show next season, of not being able to expect anything they’ve come to expect in a normal television show."[25]

Trailer

The trailer for the first season aired some time between April and November, 2001. The trailer announces that David Palmer may become the first black U.S. President and shows Jack Bauer learning about the assassination attempt and corruption within his agency. Notably, the trailer shows the explosion of a commercial plane that was edited out of the show in response to the September 11 attacks.[26] All other scenes shown are from the premiere episode.

Reception

The first season received universal acclaim, scoring a Metacritic rating of 88/100 based on 27 reviews.[27] On Rotten Tomatoes, the season has an approval rating of 95% with an average score of 8.7 out of 10 based on 21 reviews. The website's critical consensus reads, "Brimming with tension and political intrigue, 24 successfully introduces its unique, high-concept format and a compelling hero worth watching in Kiefer Sutherland's Jack Bauer."[28]

Kiefer Sutherland won the Golden Globe Award for Best Actor – Television Series Drama and the Satellite Award for Best Actor – Television Series Drama for his role as Jack Bauer for this season. In 2009, the season finale ("11:00 p.m. – 12:00 a.m.") was listed in TV Guide's list of the top 100 episodes of all time, at number 10.[29] In 2005, TV Land included the same episode as part of its "100 Most Unexpected Moments in TV History", ranking it number 32.[30]Teri Bauer's death at the end of the finale was voted by TV Guide as the second-most shocking death in television history.[31]

Award nominations

Organization Category Nominee(s) Result
Primetime Emmy Awards Outstanding Drama Series Robert Cochran, Howard Gordon, Brian Grazer, Stephen Hopkins, Tony Krantz, Joel Surnow, Cyrus Yavneh Nominated
Outstanding Lead Actor in a Drama Series Kiefer Sutherland Nominated
Outstanding Directing for a Drama Series Stephen Hopkins Nominated
Outstanding Writing for a Drama Series Robert Cochran, Joel Surnow Won
Outstanding Single-Camera Picture Editing for a Series Chris Willingham Won
Outstanding Single-Camera Picture Editing for a Series David Thompson Nominated
Outstanding Art Direction for a Single-Camera Series Carlos Barbosa, Tim Beach, Ellen Brill Nominated
Outstanding Casting for a Drama Series Debi Manwiller Nominated
Outstanding Music Composition for a Series, Dramatic Underscore Sean Callery Nominated
Outstanding Single-Camera Sound Mixing for a Series William Gocke, Mike Olman, Ken Kobett Nominated
Golden Globe Awards Best Drama Series Nominated
Best Actor in a Drama Series Kiefer Sutherland Won
Screen Actors Guild Awards Outstanding Performance by a Male Actor in a Drama Series Kiefer Sutherland Nominated
Outstanding Performance by an Ensemble in a Drama Series Xander Berkeley, Carlos Bernard, Jude Ciccolella, Sarah Clarke, Elisha Cuthbert, Michelle Forbes, Laura Harris, Dennis Haysbert, Leslie Hope, Penny Johnson Jerald, Phillip Rhys, Kiefer Sutherland, Sarah Wynter Nominated
Satellite Awards Best Drama Series Won
Best Actor in a Drama Series Kiefer Sutherland Won
Directors Guild of America Awards Best Directing for a Drama Series Stephen Hopkins Nominated
Television Critics Association Awards Best New Program of the Year Won
Best Program of the Year Won
Outstanding Achievement in Drama Nominated
Individual Achievement in Drama Kiefer Sutherland Nominated

Home media releases

The first season was released on DVD in region 1 on September 17, 2002 (2002-09-17),[32] and in region 2 on October 14, 2002 (2002-10-14).[33] A special-edition version was released in region 1 on May 20, 2008 (2008-05-20).[34] The season 1 DVD features an alternative ending in which Teri Bauer survives.[35]

References

  1. ^ "National Nielsen Viewership (Nov. 5–11)". The Los Angeles Times. November 14, 2001. Retrieved April 8, 2021 – via Newspapers.com.Free to read
  2. ^ "National Nielsen Viewership (Nov. 12–18)". The Los Angeles Times. November 21, 2001. Retrieved April 8, 2021 – via Newspapers.com.Free to read
  3. ^ "National Nielsen Viewership (Nov. 19–25)". The Los Angeles Times. November 28, 2001. Retrieved April 8, 2021 – via Newspapers.com.Free to read
  4. ^ "National Nielsen Viewership (Nov. 26–Dec. 2)". The Los Angeles Times. December 5, 2001. Retrieved April 8, 2021 – via Newspapers.com.Free to read
  5. ^ a b "24 - Series - Episode Lis". TV Tango. Retrieved April 10, 2021.
  6. ^ "National Nielsen Viewership (Jan. 7–13)". The Los Angeles Times. January 16, 2002. Retrieved April 8, 2021 – via Newspapers.com.Free to read
  7. ^ "National Nielsen Viewership (Jan. 14–20)". The Los Angeles Times. January 25, 2002. Retrieved April 10, 2021 – via Newspapers.com.Free to read
  8. ^ "National Nielsen Viewership (Jan. 21–27)". The Los Angeles Times. January 30, 2002. Retrieved April 10, 2021 – via Newspapers.com.Free to read
  9. ^ "National Nielsen Viewership (Feb. 4–10)". The Los Angeles Times. February 13, 2002. Retrieved April 10, 2021 – via Newspapers.com.Free to read
  10. ^ "National Nielsen Viewership (Feb. 11–17)". The Los Angeles Times. February 22, 2002. Retrieved April 10, 2021 – via Newspapers.com.Free to read
  11. ^ "National Nielsen Viewership (Feb. 18–24)". The Los Angeles Times. February 27, 2002. Retrieved April 10, 2021 – via Newspapers.com.Free to read
  12. ^ "National Nielsen Viewership (Feb. 25–Mar. 3)". The Los Angeles Times. March 6, 2002. Retrieved April 10, 2021 – via Newspapers.com.Free to read
  13. ^ "National Nielsen Viewership (Mar. 4–10)". The Los Angeles Times. March 13, 2002. Retrieved April 10, 2021 – via Newspapers.com.Free to read
  14. ^ "National Nielsen Viewership (Mar. 11–17)". The Los Angeles Times. March 20, 2002. Retrieved April 10, 2021 – via Newspapers.com.Free to read
  15. ^ "National Nielsen Viewership (Mar. 18–24)". The Los Angeles Times. March 27, 2002. Retrieved April 10, 2021 – via Newspapers.com.Free to read
  16. ^ "National Nielsen Viewership (Mar. 25–31)". The Los Angeles Times. April 3, 2002. Retrieved April 10, 2021 – via Newspapers.com.Free to read
  17. ^ "National Nielsen Viewership (Apr. 1–7)". The Los Angeles Times. April 10, 2002. Retrieved April 10, 2021 – via Newspapers.com.Free to read
  18. ^ "National Nielsen Viewership (Apr. 8–14)". The Los Angeles Times. April 17, 2002. Retrieved April 10, 2021 – via Newspapers.com.Free to read
  19. ^ "National Nielsen Viewership (Apr. 15–21)". The Los Angeles Times. April 24, 2002. Retrieved April 10, 2021 – via Newspapers.com.Free to read
  20. ^ "National Nielsen Viewership (Apr. 22–28)". The Los Angeles Times. May 1, 2002. Retrieved April 10, 2021 – via Newspapers.com.Free to read
  21. ^ "National Nielsen Viewership (May. 6-12)". The Los Angeles Times. May 15, 2002. Retrieved April 10, 2021 – via Newspapers.com.Free to read
  22. ^ "National Nielsen Viewership (May. 13-19)". The Los Angeles Times. May 22, 2002. Retrieved April 10, 2021 – via Newspapers.com.Free to read
  23. ^ "National Nielsen Viewership (May 20–26)". The Los Angeles Times. May 30, 2002. Retrieved April 8, 2021 – via Newspapers.com.Free to read
  24. ^ a b Stephen Hopkins, Leslie Hope (2008). Season 1 Special Edition DVD – Episode 24 Commentary (DVD). Fox Home Entertainment.
  25. ^ Surnow, Joel (2008). Season 1 Special Edition DVD – Alternate Ending Commentary (DVD). Fox Home Entertainment.
  26. ^ "Official 24 Season 1 Trailer". 24 Spoilers. January 28, 2011. Retrieved July 18, 2012.
  27. ^ "24: Season 1". Metacritic. Retrieved July 11, 2013.
  28. ^ "24: Day 1". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved November 5, 2021.
  29. ^ "TV's Top 100 Episodes of All Time: #10-1". TV Guide. June 19, 2009. Archived from the original on June 23, 2009. Retrieved August 28, 2011.
  30. ^ "TV Guide and TV Land Join Forces To Count Down The 100 Most Unexpected TV Moments". PR Newswire. December 1, 2005. Archived from the original on August 30, 2006. Retrieved March 7, 2021.
  31. ^ Bryant, Adam (May 2, 2009). "The 13 Most Shocking TV Deaths". TV Guide. Retrieved January 2, 2012.
  32. ^ "24 - Season 1". TVShowsOnDVD. Archived from the original on May 25, 2011. Retrieved November 26, 2010.
  33. ^ "24: Complete Season 1". Amazon.co.uk. Retrieved January 2, 2009.
  34. ^ "24 - Season 1 - Special Edition". TVShowsOnDVD. Archived from the original on August 25, 2011. Retrieved November 26, 2010.
  35. ^ Baird, Scott (January 25, 2018). "15 TV Show Episodes You Didn't Know Had Alternate Endings". Screen Rant. Retrieved October 11, 2018.

External links

  • 24 at IMDb
  • Season 1 on 24 Wiki
Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=24_(season_1)&oldid=1053698257"
'Why Men Love War', Read William Broyles, Jr. Legendary ...

11-11-2021 · One of my students was a beautiful girl whose parents had been killed in Hue during the Tet Offensive of 1968. She had fallen in love with an American civilian …

11-11-2021

The story originally ran in the November 1984 issue. You can read every story we've ever published on Esquire Classic.

I last saw Hiers in a rice paddy in Vietnam. He was nineteen then—my wonderfully skilled and maddeningly insubordinate radio operator. For months we were seldom more than three feet apart. Then one day he went home, and fifteen years passed before we met by accident last winter at the Vietnam Veterans Memorial in Washington. A few months later I visited Hiers and his wife, Susan, in Vermont, where they run a bed-and -breakfast place. The first morning we were up at dawn trying to save five newborn rabbits. Hiers built a nest of rabbit fur and straw in his barn and positioned a lamp to provide warmth against the bitter cold.

"What people can't understand," Hiers said, gently picking up each tiny rabbit and placing it in the nest, "is how much fun Vietnam was. I loved it. I loved it, and I can't tell anybody."

Hiers loved war. And as I drove back from Vermont in a blizzard, my children asleep in the back of the car, I had to admit that for all these years I also had loved it, and more than I knew. I hated war, too. Ask me, ask any man who has been to war about his experience, and chances are we'll say we don't want to talk about it—implying that we hated it so much, it was so terrible, that we would rather leave it buried. And it is no mystery why men hate war. War is ugly, horrible, evil, and it is reasonable for men to hate all that. But I believe that most men who have been to war would have to admit, if they are honest, that somewhere inside themselves they loved it too, loved it as much as anything that has happened to them before or since. And how do you explain that to your wife, your children, your parents, or your friends?

esquire archive

That's why men in their sixties and seventies sit in their dens and recreation rooms around America and know that nothing in their life will equal the day they parachuted into St. Lo or charged the bunker on Okinawa. That's why veterans' reunions are invariably filled with boozy awkwardness, forced camaraderie ending in sadness and tears: you are together again, these are the men who were your brothers, but it's not the same, can never be the same. That's why when we returned from Vietnam we moped around, listless, not interested in anything or anyone. Something had gone out of our lives forever, and our behavior on returning was inexplicable except as the behavior of men who had lost a great perhaps the great-love of their lives, and had no way to tell anyone about it.

In part we couldn't describe our feelings because the language failed us: the civilian-issue adjectives and nouns, verbs and adverbs, seemed made for a different universe. There were no metaphors that connected the war to everyday life. But we were also mute, I suspect, out of shame. Nothing in the way we are raised admits the possibility of loving war. It is at best a necessary evil, a patriotic duty to be discharged and then put behind us. To love war is to mock the very values we supposedly fight for. It is to be insensitive, reactionary, a brute.

But it may be more dangerous, both for men and nations, to suppress the reasons men love war than to admit them. In Apocalypse Now, Robert Duvall, playing a brigade commander, surveys a particularly horrific combat scene and says, with great sadness, "You know, someday this war's gonna be over. " He is clearly meant to be a psychopath, decorating enemy bodies with playing cards, riding to war with Wagner blaring. We laugh at him—Hey! nobody's like that! And last year in Grenada American boys charged into battle playing Wagner, a new generation aping the movies of Vietnam the way we aped the movies of World War 11, learning nothing, remembering nothing.

To love war is to mock the very values we supposedly fight for.

Alfred Kazin wrote that war is the enduring condition of twentieth-century man. He was only partly right. War is the enduring condition of man, period. Men have gone to war over everything from Helen of Troy to Jenkins's ear. Two million Frenchmen and Englishmen died in muddy trenches in World War I because a student shot an archduke. The truth is, the reasons don't matter. There is a reason for every war and a war for every reason.

For centuries men have hoped that with history would come progress, and with progress, peace. But progress has simply given man the means to make war even more horrible; no wars in our savage past can begin to match the brutality of the wars spawned in this century, in the beautifully ordered, civilized landscape of Europe, where everyone is literate and classical music plays in every village cafe. War is not all aberration; it is part of the family. the crazy uncle we try—in vain—to keep locked in the basement.

Consider my own example. I am not a violent person. I have not been in a fight since grade school. Aside from being a fairly happy-go-lucky carnivore, I have no lust for blood, nor do I enjoy killing animals, fish, or even insects. My days are passed in reasonable contentment, filled with the details of work and everyday life. I am also a father now, and a male who has helped create life is war's natural enemy. I have seen what war does to children, makes them killers or victims, robs them of their parents, their homes, and their innocence—steals their childhood and leaves them marked in body, mind, and spirit.

us infantry, vietnam

I spent most of my combat tour in Vietnam trudging through its jungles and rice paddies without incident, but I have seen enough of war to know that I never want to fight again, and that I would do everything in my power to keep my son from fighting. Then why, at the oddest times—when I am in a meeting or running errands, or on beautiful summer evenings, with the light fading and children playing around me—do my thoughts turn back fifteen years to a war I didn't believe in and never wanted to fight? Why do I miss it?

I miss it because I loved it, loved it in strange and troubling ways. When I talk about loving war I don't mean the romantic notion of war that once mesmerized generations raised on Walter Scott. What little was left of that was ground into the mud at Verdun and Passchendaele: honor and glory do not survive the machine gun. And it's not the mindless bliss of martyrdom that sends Iranian teenagers armed with sticks against Iraqi tanks. Nor do I mean the sort of hysteria that can grip a whole country, the way during the Falklands war the English press inflamed the lust that lurks beneath the cool exterior of Britain. That is vicarious war, the thrill of participation without risk, the lust of the audience for blood. It is easily fanned, that lust; even the invasion of a tiny island like Grenada can do it. Like all lust, for as long as it lasts it dominates everything else; a nation's other problems are seared away, a phenomenon exploited by kings, dictators, and presidents since civilization began.

And I don't mean war as an addiction, the constant rush that war junkies get, the crazies mailing ears home to their girlfriends, the zoomies who couldn't get an erection unless they were cutting in the afterburners on their F-4s. And, finally, I'm not talking about how some men my age feel today, men who didn't go to war but now have a sort of nostalgic longing for something they missed, some classic male experience, the way some women who didn't have children worry they missed something basic about being a woman, something they didn't value when they could have done it.

I'm talking about why thoughtful, loving men can love war even while knowing and hating it. Like any love, the love of war is built on a complex of often contradictory reasons. Some of them are fairly painless to discuss; others go almost too deep, stir the caldron too much. I'll give the more respectable reasons first.

Like all lust, for as long as it lasts it dominates everything else.

Part of the love of war stems from its being an experience of great intensity; its lure is the fundamental human passion to witness, to see things, what the Bible calls the lust of the eye and the Marines in Vietnam called eye fucking. War stops time, intensifies experience to the point of a terrible ecstasy. It is the dark opposite of that moment of passion caught in "Ode on a Grecian Urn": "For ever warm and still to be enjoy'd/ For ever panting, and forever young. " War offers endless exotic experiences, enough "I couldn't fucking believe it! "'s to last a lifetime.

Most people fear freedom; war removes that fear. And like a stem father, it provides with its order and discipline both security and an irresistible urge to rebel against it, a constant yearning to fly over the cuckoo's nest. The midnight requisition is an honored example. I remember one elaborately planned and meticulously executed raid on our principal enemy—the U.S. Army, not the North Vietnamese—to get lightweight blankets and cleaning fluid for our rifles repeated later in my tour, as a mark of my changed status, to obtain a refrigerator and an air conditioner for our office. To escape the Vietnamese police we tied sheets together and let ourselves down from the top floor of whorehouses, and on one memorable occasion a friend who is now a respectable member of our diplomatic corps hid himself inside a rolled-up Oriental rug while the rest of us careered off in the truck. leaving him to make his way back stark naked to our base six miles away. War, since it steals our youth, offers a sanction to play boys' games.

War replaces the difficult gray areas daily life with an eerie, serene clarity. In war you usually know who is your enemy and who is your friend, and are given means of dealing with both. (That was, incidentally, one of the great problems with Vietnam: it was hard to tell friend from foe—it was too much like ordinary Life.)

War is an escape from the everyday into a special world where the bonds that hold us to our duties in daily life—the bonds of family, community, work, disappear. In war, all bets are off. It's the frontier beyond the last settlement, it's Las Vegas. The men who do well in peace do not necessarily do well at war, while those who were misfits and failures may find themselves touched with fire. U. S. Grant, selling firewood on the streets of St. Louis and then four years later commanding the Union armies, is the best example, although I knew many Marines who were great warriors but whose ability to adapt to civilian life was minimal.

american soldiers of the 173th airborne are evacua

I remember Kirby, a skinny kid with JUST YOU AND ME LORD tattooed on his shoulder. Kirby had extended his tour in Vietnam twice. He had long since ended his attachment to any known organization and lived alone out in the most dangerous areas, where he wandered about night and day, dressed only in his battered fatigue trousers with a .45 automatic tucked into the waistband, his skinny shoulders and arms as dark as a Montagnard's.

One day while out on patrol we found him on the floor of a hut, being tended by a girl in black pajamas, a bullet wound in his arm.

He asked me for a cigarette, then eyed me, deciding if I was worth telling his story to. "I stopped in for a mango, broad daylight, and there bigger'n hell were three NVA officers, real pretty tan uniforms. They got this map spread out oil a table, just eyeballin' it, makin' themselves right at home. They looked at me. I looked at them. Then they went for their nine millimeters and I went for my .45. "

"Yeah?"I answered. "So what happened

"I wasted 'em," he said, then puffed on his cigarette. Just another day at work, killing three men on the way to eat a mango.

How are you ever going to go back to the world?" I asked him. (He didn't. A few months later a ten-year-old Vietcong girl blew him up with a command-detonated booby trap.

War is a brutal, deadly game, but a game, the best there is. And men love games. You can come back from war broken in mind or body, or not come back at all. But if you come back whole you bring with you the knowledge that you have explored regions of your soul that in most men will always remain uncharted. Nothing I had ever studied was as complex or as creative as the small-unit tactics of Vietnam. No sport I had ever played brought me to such deep awareness of my physical and emotional limits.

No sport I had ever played brought me to such deep awareness of my physical and emotional limits.

One night not long after I had arrived in Vietnam, one of my platoon's observation on posts heard enemy movement. I immediately lost all saliva in my mouth. I could not talk; not a sound would pass my lips. My brain erased as if the plug had been pulled—I felt only a dull hum throughout my body, a low-grade current coursing through me like electricity through a power line. After a minute I could at least grunt, which I did as Hiers gave orders to the squad leaders, called in artillery and air support, and threw back the probe. I was terrified. I was ashamed, and I couldn't wait for it to happen again.

The enduring emotion of war, when everything else has faded, is comradeship. A comrade in war is a man you can trust with anything, because you trust him with your life. "It is," Philip Caputo wrote in A Rumor of War "unlike marriage, a bond I that cannot be broken by a word, by boredom or divorce, or by anything other than death." Despite its extreme right-wing image, war is the only utopian experience most of us ever have. Individual possessions and advantage count for nothing: the group is everything What you have is shared with your friends. It isn't a particularly selective process, but a love that needs no reasons, that transcends race and personality and education—all those things that would make a difference in peace. It is, simply, brotherly love.

What made this love so intense was that it had no limits, not even death. John Wheeler in Touched with Fire quotes the Congressional Medal of Honor citation of Hector Santiago-Colon: "Due to the heavy volume of enemy fire and exploding grenades around them, a North Vietnamese soldier was able to crawl, undetected, to their position. Suddenly, the enemy soldier lobbed a hand grenade into Sp4c. Santiago-Colon's foxhole. Realizing that there was no time to throw the grenade out of his position, Sp4c., Santiago-Colon retrieved the grenade, tucked it into his stomach, and turning away from his comrades, and absorbed the full impact of the blast. " This is classic heroism, the final evidence of how much comrades can depend on each other. What went through Santiago-Colon's mini for that split second when he could just a easily have dived to safety? It had to be this: my comrades are more important than my most valuable possession—my own life.

Isolation is the greatest fear in war. The military historian S.L.A. Marshall con ducted intensive studies of combat incidents during World War 11 and Korea and discovered that, at most, only 25 percent of the men who were under fire actually fired their own weapons. The rest cowered behind cover, terrified and helpless—all systems off. Invariably, those men had felt alone, and to feel alone in combat is to cease to function; it is the terrifying prelude to the final loneliness of death. The only men who kept their heads felt connected to other men, a part of something as if comradeship were some sort of collective life-force, the power to face death and stay conscious. But when those men cam home from war, that fear of isolation stayed with many of them, a tiny mustard seed fallen on fertile soil.

sick of war

When I came back from Vietnam I tried to keep up with my buddies. We wrote letters, made plans to meet, but something always came up and we never seemed to get together. For a few year we exchanged Christmas cards, then nothing . The special world that had sustain our intense comradeship was gone. Everyday life—our work, family, friends—reclaimed us, and we grew up.

But there was something not right about that. In Vietnam I had been closer to Hiers, for example, than to anyone before or since. We were connected by the radio, our lives depended on it, and on each other. We ate, slept, laughed, and we terrified together. When I first arrived in Vietnam I tried to get Hiers to salute me, but he simply wouldn't do it, mustering at most a "Howdy, Lieutenant, how's it hanging" as we passed. For every time that I didn't salute I told him he would have to fill a hundred sandbags.

We'd reached several thousand sandbags when Hiers took me aside and said "Look, Lieutenant, I'll be happy to salute you, really. But if I get in the habit back here in the rear I may salute you when we're out in the bush. And those gooks a just waiting for us to salute, tell 'em who the lieutenant is. You'd be the first one blown away." We forgot the sandbags and the salutes. Months later, when Hiers left the platoon to go home, he turned to me as I stood on our hilltop position, and gave me the smartest salute I'd ever seen. I shot him the finger, and that was the last I saw of him for fifteen years. When we met by accident at the Vietnam memorial it was like a sign; enough time had passed-we were old enough to say goodbye to who we had been and become friends as who we had become.

For us and for thousands of veterans the memorial was special ground. War is theater, and Vietnam had been fought without a third act. It was a set that hadn't been struck; its characters were lost there, with no way to get off and no more lines to say. And so when we came to the Vietnam memorial in Washington we wrote our own endings as we stared at the names on the wall, reached out and touched them, washed them with our tears, said goodbye. We are older now, some of us grandfathers, some quite successful, but the memorial touched some part of us that is still out there, under fire, alone. When we came to that wait and met the memories of our buddies and gave them their due, pulled them tip from their buried places and laid our love to rest, we were home at last.

The special world that had sustain our intense comradeship was gone.

For all these reasons, men love war. But these are the easy reasons, the first circle the ones we can talk about without risk of disapproval, without plunging too far into the truth or ourselves. But there are other, more troubling reasons why men love war. The love of war stems from the union, deep in the core of our being between sex and destruction, beauty and horror, love and death. War may be the only way in which most men touch the mythic domains in our soul. It is, for men, at some terrible level, the closest thing to what childbirth is for women: the initiation into the power of life and death. It is like lifting off the corner of the universe and looking at what's underneath. To see war is to see into the dark heart of things, that no-man's-land between life and death, or even beyond.

And that explains a central fact about the stories men tell about war. Every good war story is, in at least some of its crucial elements, false. The better the war story, the less of it is likely to be true. Robert Graves wrote that his main legacy from World War I was "a difficulty in telling tile truth. " I have never once heard a grunt tell a reporter a war story that wasn't a lie, just as some of the stories that I tell about the war are lies. Not that even the lies aren't true, on a certain level. They have a moral, even a mythic, truth, rather than a literal one. They reach out and remind the tellers and listeners of their place in the world. They are the primitive stories told around the fire in smoky teepees after the pipe has been passed. They are all, at bottom, the same.

Some of the best war stories out Of Vietnam are in Michael Heir's Dispatches One of Heir's most quoted stories goes like this: "But what a story he told me, as one pointed and resonant as any war story I ever heard. It took me a year to understand it: "'Patrol went up the mountain. One man came back. He died before he could tell its What happened.'

war

"I waited for the rest, but it seemed not to be that kind of story; when I asked him what had happened he just looked like he felt sorry for me, fucked if he'd waste time telling stories to anyone as dumb as I was."

It is a great story, a combat haiku, all negative space and darkness humming with portent. It seems rich, unique to Vietnam. But listen, now, to this:

"We all went up to Gettysburg, the summer of '63: and some of us came back from there: and that's all except the details. " That is the account of Gettysburg by one Praxiteles Swan, onetime captain of the Confederate States Army. The language is different, but it is the same story. And it is a story that I would imagine has been told for as long as men have gone to war. Its purpose is not to enlighten but to exclude; its message is riot its content but putting the listener in his place. I suffered, I was there. You were not. Only those facts matter. Everything else is beyond words to tell. As was said after the worst tragedies in Vietnam: "Don't mean nothin'." Which meant, "It means everything it means too much." Language overload.

War stories inhabit the realm of myth because every war story is about death. And one of the most troubling reasons men love war is the love of destruction, the thrill of killing. In his superb book on World War II, The Warriors, J. Glenn Gray wrote that "thousands of youths who never suspect the presence of such an impulse in themselves have learned in military life the mad excitement of destroying." It's what Hemingway meant when he wrote, "Admit that you have liked to kill as all who are soldiers by choice have enjoyed it it some time whether they lie about it or not."

My platoon and I went through Vietnam burning hooches (note how language liberated US—we didn't burn houses and shoot people: we burned hooches and shot gooks), killing dogs and pigs and chickens, destroying, because, as my friend Hiers put it, "We thought it was fun at the time." As anyone who has fired a bazooka or an M-60 machine gun knows, there is something to that power in your finger, the soft, seductive touch of the trigger. It's like the magic sword, a grunt's Excalibur: all you do is move that finger so imperceptibly just a wish flashing across your mind like a shadow, not even a full brain synapse, and I poof in a blast of sound and energy and light a truck or a house or even people disappear, everything flying and settling back into dust.

War stories inhabit the realm of myth because every war story is about death.

There is a connection between this thrill and the games we played as children, the endless games of cowboys and Indians and war, the games that ended with "Bang bang you're dead," and everyone who was "dead" got up and began another game. That's war as fantasy, and it's the same emotion that touches us in war movies and books, where death is something without consequence, and not something that ends with terrible finality as blood from our fatally fragile bodies flows out onto the mud. Boys aren't the only ones prone to this fantasy; it possesses the old men who have never been to war and who preside over our burials with the same tears they shed when soldiers die in the movies—tears of fantasy, cheap tears. The love of destruction and killing in war stems from that fantasy of war as a game, but it is the more seductive for being indulged at terrible risk. It is the game survivors play, after they have seen death up close and learned in their hearts how common, how ordinary, and how inescapable it is.

I don't know if I killed anyone in Vietnam but I tried as hard as I could. I fired at muzzle flashes in tile night, threw grenades during ambushes, ordered artillery and bombing where I thought tile enemy was. Whenever another platoon got a higher body count, I was disappointed: it was like suiting up for the football game and then not getting to play. After one ambush my men brought back the body of a North Vietnamese soldier. I later found the dead man propped against some C-ration boxes; he had on sunglasses, and a Playboy magazine lay open in his lap; a cigarette dangled jauntily from his mouth, and on his head was perched a large and perfectly formed piece of shit.

I pretended to be Outraged, since desecrating bodies was frowned on as un-American and counterproductive. But it wasn't outrage I felt. I kept my officer's face on, but inside I was... laughing. I laughed—I believe now—in part because of some subconscious appreciation of this obscene linkage of sex and excrement and 'death; and in part because of the exultant realization that he—whoever he had been—was dead and I—special, unique I me—was alive. He was my brother, but I knew him not. The line between life and death is gossamer thin; there is joy. true joy, in being alive when so many around you are not. And from the joy of being alive in death's presence to the joy of causing death is, unfortunately, not that great a step.

A lieutenant colonel I knew, a true intellectual, was put in charge of civil affairs, the work we did helping the Vietnamese grow rice and otherwise improve their lives. He was a sensitive man who kept a journal and seemed far better equipped for winning hearts and minds than for combat command. But he got one, and I remember flying out to visit his fire base the night after it had been attacked by an NVA sapper unit. Most of the combat troops I had been out on an operation, so this colonel mustered a motley crew of clerks and cooks and drove the sappers off, chasing them across tile rice paddies and killing dozens of these elite enemy troops by the light of flares. That morning, as they were surveying what they had done and loading the dead NVA--all naked and covered with grease and mud so they could penetrate the barbed wire--on mechanical mules like so much garbage, there was a look of beatific contentment on tile colonel's face that I had not seen except in charismatic churches. It was the look of a person transported into ecstasy.

infantrymen leaving helicopter

And I—what did I do, confronted with this beastly scene? I smiled back. 'as filled with bliss as he was. That was another of the times I stood on the edge of my humanity, looked into the pit, and loved what I saw there. I had surrendered to an aesthetic that was divorced from that crucial quality of empathy that lets us feel the sufferings of others. And I saw a terrible beauty there. War is not simply the spirit of ugliness, although it is certainly that, the devil's work. But to give the devil his due, it is also an affair of great and seductive beauty.

Art and war were for ages as linked as art and religion. Medieval and Renaissance artists gave us cathedrals, but they also gave us armor sculptures of war, swords and muskets and cannons of great beauty, art offered to the god of war as reverently as the carved altars were offered to the god of love. War was a public ritual of the highest order, as the beautifully decorated cannons in the Invalids in Paris and the chariots with their depict ions of the gods in the Metropolitan Museum of Art so eloquently attest Men love their weapons, not simply for helping to keep them alive, but for a deeper reason. They love their rifles and their knives for the same reason that the medieval warriors loved their armor and their swords: they are instruments of beauty.

War is beautiful. There is something about a firefight at night, something about the mechanical elegance of an M -60 machine gun. They are everything they should be, perfect examples of their form. When you are firing out at night, the red racers go out into tile blackness is if you were drawing with a light pen. Then little dots of light start winking back, and green tracers from the AK-47s begin to weave ill with the red to form brilliant patterns that seem, given their great speeds, oddly timeless, as if they had been etched on the night. And then perhaps the gunships called Spooky come in and fire their incredible guns like huge hoses washing down from the sky, like something God would do when He was really ticked off. And then the flares pop, casting eerie shadows as they float down on their little parachutes, swinging in the breeze, and anyone who moves, in their light seems a ghost escaped from hell.

Daytime offers nothing so spectacular, but it also has its charms. Many men loved napalm, loved its silent power, the way it could make tree lines or houses explode as if by spontaneous combustion. But I always thought napalm was greatly overrated, unless you enjoy watching tires burn. I preferred white phosphorus, which exploded with a fulsome elegance, wreathing its target in intense and billowing white smoke, throwing out glowing red comets trailing brilliant white plumes I loved it more--not less --because of its function: to destroy, to kill. The seduction of War is in its offering such intense beauty--divorced from I all civilized values, but beauty still.

I had surrendered to an aesthetic that was divorced from that crucial quality of empathy...

Most men who have been to war, and most women who have been around it, remember that never in their lives did they have so heightened a sexuality. War is, in short. a turn-on. War cloaks men in a coat that conceals the limits and inadequacies of their separate natures. It gives them all aura, a collective power, an almost animal force. They aren't just Billy or Johnny or Bobby, they are soldiers! But there's a price for all that: the agonizing loneliness of war, the way a soldier is cut off from everything that defines him as an individual—he is the true rootless man.

The uniform did that, too, and all that heightened sexuality is not much solace late it night when the emptiness comes.

There were many men for whom this condition led to great decisions. I knew a Marine in Vietnam who was a great rarity, an Ivy League graduate. He also had an Ivy League wife, but lie managed to fall in love with a Vietnamese bar girl who could barely speak English. She was not particularly attractive, a peasant girl trying to support her family He spent all his time with her, he fell in love with her—awkwardly informally, but totally. At the end of his twelve months in Vietnam he went home, divorced his beautiful, intelligent, and socially correct wife and then went back to Vietnam and proposed to the bar girl, who accepted. It was a marriage across a vast divide of language, culture, race, and class that could only have been made in war. I am not sure that it lasted, but it would not surprise me if despite great difficulties, it did.

Of course. for every such story there are hundreds. thousands, of stories of passing contacts, a man and a woman holding each other tight for one moment, finding in sex some escape from the terrible reality of tile war. The intensity that war brings to sex, the "let us love now because there may be no tomorrow," is based on death. No matter what our weapons on the battlefield, love is finally our only weapon against death. Sex is the weapon of life, the shooting sperm sent like an army of guerrillas to penetrate the egg's defenses is the only victory that really matters. War thrusts you into the well of loneliness, death breathing in your ear. Sex is a grappling hook that pulls you out, ends your isolation, makes you one with life again.

pulitzer prize winning vietnam photo

Not that such thoughts were anywhere near conscious. I remember going off to war with a copy of War and Peace and The Charterhouse of Parma stuffed into my pack. They were soon replaced with The Story of 0. War heightens all appetites. I cannot describe the ache for candy, for taste: I wanted a Mars bar more than I wanted anything in my life And that hunger paled beside the force that pushed it, et toward women, any women: women we would not even have looked at in peace floated into our fantasies and lodged there. Too often we made our fantasies real, always to be disappointed, our hunger only greater. The ugliest prostitutes specialized in group affairs, passed among several men or even whole squads, in communion almost, a sharing more than sexual. In sex even more than in killing I could see the beast, crouched drooling on its haunches, could see it mocking me for my frailties, knowing I hated myself for them but that I could not get enough, that I would keep coming back again and again.

After I ended my tour in combat I came back to work at division headquarters and volunteered one night a week teaching English to Vietnamese adults. One of my students was a beautiful girl whose parents had been killed in Hue during the Tet Offensive of 1968. She had fallen in love with an American civilian who worked at the consulate in Da Nang. He had left for his next duty station and promised he would send for her. She never heard from him again. She had a seductive sadness about her. I found myself seeing her after class, then I was sneaking into the motor pool and commandeering a deuce-and-a-half truck and driving into Da Nang at night to visit her. She lived in a small house near the consulate with her grandparents and brothers and sisters. It had one room divided by a curtain. When I arrived, the rest of the family would retire behind the curtain. Amid their hushed voices and the smells of cooking oil and rotted fish we would talk and fumble toward each other, my need greater than hers.

I wanted her desperately. But her tenderness and vulnerability, the torn flower of her beauty, frustrated my death-obsessed lust. I didn't see her as one Vietnamese, I saw her as all Vietnamese. She was the suffering soul of war, and I was the soldier who had wounded it but would make it whole. My loneliness was pulling me into the same strong current that had swallowed my friend who married the bar girl. I could see it happening, but I seemed powerless to stop it. I wrote her long poems, made inquiries about staying on in Da Nang, built a fantasy future for the two of us. I wasn't going to betray her the way the other American had, the way all Americans had, the way all men betrayed the women who helped them through the war. I wasn't like that. But then I received orders sending me home two weeks early. I drove into Da Nang to talk to her, and to make definite plans. Halfway there, I turned back.

At the airport I threw the poems into a trash can. When the wheels of the plane lifted off the soil of Vietnam, I cheered like everyone else. And as I pressed my face against the window and watched Vietnam shrink to a distant green blur and finally disappear, I felt sad and guilty--for her, for my comrades who had been killed and wounded, for everything. But that feeling was overwhelmed by my vast sense of relief. I had survived. And I was going home. I would be myself again, or so I thought.

War thrusts you into the well of loneliness, death breathing in your ear.

But some fifteen years later she and the war are still on my mind, all those memories, each with its secret passages and cutbacks, hundreds of labyrinths, all leading back to a truth not safe but essential. It is about why we can love and hate, why we can bring forth Fe and snuff it out why each of us is a battleground where good and evil are always at war for our souls.

The power of war, like the power of love, springs from man's heart. The one yields death, the other life. But life without death has no meaning; nor, at its deepest level, does love without war. Without war we could not know from what depths love rises, or what power it must have to overcome such evil and redeem us. It is no accident that men love war, as love and war are at the core of man. It is not only that we must love one another or die. We must love one another and die. War, like death, is always with us, a constant companion, a secret sharer. To deny its seduction, to overcome death, our love for peace, for life itself, must be greater than we think possible, greater even than we can imagine.

Hiers and I were skiing down a mountain in Vermont, flying effortlessly over a world cloaked in white, beautiful, innocent, peaceful. On the ski lift up we had been talking about a different world, hot, green, smelling of decay and death, where each step out of the mud took all our strength. We stopped and looked back, the air pure and cold, our breath coming in puffs of vapor. Our children were following us down the hill, bent over, little balls of life racing on the edge of danger.

Hiers turned to me with a smile and said, "It's a long way from Nam isn't it?"

Yes.

And no.

Michael Jordan

17-12-2021 · Jordan is in samenwerking met Nike ook een schoenenmerk begonnen en iets later ook een kledingmerk De vrouw van Jordan, Juanita, eiste na hun scheiding in januari 2002 de zeggenschap over hun drie kinderen op. Jordan speelde samen met Bugs Bunny in de film Space Jam uit 1996. Jordan speelde in de clip van Michael Jacksons Jam. De single werd ...

17-12-2021
Michael Jordan
NBA-speler
Michael Jordan in 2014
Persoonlijke informatie Bijnaam Air Jordan
His Airness
MJ Positie Shooting guard Lengte 1,98 Geboortedatum 17 februari 1963 Geboorteplaats New York, Verenigde Staten Clubinformatie Draft 3e overall, 1984
Chicago Bulls Actieve jaren 1984–1993
1995–1998
2001–2003 Team(s)
  • Chicago Bulls (1984-1993)
  • Chicago Bulls (1995-1998)
  • Washington Wizards (2001–2003)
Titels en prijzen Titel(s)
  • NBA kampioen 1990-91
  • NBA kampioen 1991-92
  • NBA kampioen 1992-93
  • NBA kampioen 1995-96
  • NBA kampioen 1996-97
  • NBA kampioen 1997-98
  • Pan-Amerikaanse Spelen 1983
  • Olympisch kampioen 1984
  • Olympisch kampioen 1992
  • FIBA Americas Championship 1992
Prijzen
  • NBA Defensive Player of the Year (1988)
  • NBA Finals MVP (1991-1993, 1996-1998)
  • NBA MVP (1988, 1991, 1992, 1996, 1998)
  • NBA Rookie of the Year (1985)
NBA All-Star 14: 1985-1993, 1996-1998, 2002, 2003 Hall of Fame Class van 2009 Basketbal

Michael Jeffrey Jordan (New York, 17 februari 1963) is een Amerikaans voormalig basketbalspeler.[1]

College

Jordan speelde tussen 1981 en 1984 collegebasketbal bij UNC (University of North Carolina), de Tar Heels van coach Dean Smith. In de finale van het NCAA-toernooi van 1982 (in de strijd om de nationale titel) scoorde hij (in zijn eerste seizoen als collegebasketballer) de laatste twee punten en bepaalde de eindstand op 63-62 in een overwinning op Georgetown. Dit betekende meteen de eerste titel voor coach Smith. Zowel in 1983 als 1984 werd hij door Sporting News als Player of the Year gekozen en in 1984 ontving hij de Wooden en Naismith Awards, twee van de meest prestigieuze collegetitels voor beste collegebasketballer van het jaar. Hij moest nog aan zijn laatste jaar op de universiteit beginnen, maar besloot om zijn studie voorlopig te onderbreken en te kiezen voor de NBA: hij stelde zich beschikbaar voor de NBA Draft van 1984, waarin NBA teams kunnen kiezen uit nieuw talent, voornamelijk uit het collegebasketbal, maar tegenwoordig ook uit het buitenland.

NBA: de beginjaren

Met de derde keuze kozen de Chicago Bulls Jordan uit de NBA Draft. Iedereen stond versteld dat de tweevoudig Collegespeler van het Jaar niet als tweede werd gekozen, maar de Portland Trail Blazers kozen voor lengte (Sam Bowie), terwijl al duidelijk was dat Akeem Olajuwon (die later een H zou toevoegen aan zijn voornaam) naar 'hometown' Houston zou gaan. Nog voordat zijn carrière van start ging, deed Jordan mee aan de Olympische Spelen van 1984 in Los Angeles, en met Team USA won hij goud (mede-Olympiërs van toen waren o.a. Patrick Ewing en Chris Mullin, met wie hij in 1992 wederom goud zou winnen). In zijn derde wedstrijd als prof scoorde hij al 37 punten, een kleine voorbode van wat komen zou: 49 punten tegen de Detroit Pistons, 5 dagen voor zijn 22e verjaardag. Dit betekende een rookie-record, dat pas verbroken zou worden in 1996/1997 door Allen Iverson. Hij eindigde het seizoen met 28,2 punten gemiddeld en werd bekroond met de Rookie of the Year-Award (Nieuwkomer van het jaar).

In zijn tweede seizoen speelde hij nauwelijks, vanwege een gebroken voet, maar ondanks zijn afwezigheid plaatste Chicago zich voor de play-offs. In de eerste ronde mocht het team uit de Windy City het opnemen tegen de Boston Celtics van Larry Bird, Kevin McHale en Robert Parish. Hoewel ze drie wedstrijden op rij verloren en dus de eerste ronde niet doorkwamen, scoorde Jordan in een van die partijen 63 punten (een play-off-record) en ontlokte daarmee bij Larry Bird de reactie: "I think it's just God disguised as Michael Jordan". Jordan was toen net 23 jaar oud.

De 'outburst' tegen Boston was slechts het begin van wat van Jordan een legende zou maken. In het seizoen '86-'87 werd hij voor het eerst topscorer (o.a. door negenmaal op rij 40 of meer punten te scoren) en met de 37,1 punten per wedstrijd was hij de enige die in de buurt kwam van de statistieken van de legendarische Wilt Chamberlain. Ondanks het scoringsgeweld van Jordan, werden de Bulls voor het tweede jaar op rij met 3-0 door de Celtics uit de play-offs gegooid.

Het seizoen 87/88 staat te boek als een van Jordans beste, hoewel er geen kampioenschap werd gewonnen. Hij werd voor de tweede maal topscorer, werd gekozen tot meest waardevolle speler (MVP), Defensive Player of the Year, MVP van de All Star Game (mede door 40 punten te scoren, een All-Star record), won de Slam Dunk Contest tijdens het All-Star Weekend, en werd gekozen in het All NBA First Team en All Defensive First Team (beide voor de eerste keer). Ditmaal bereikten de Bulls in de play-offs de volgende ronde, maar een nieuwe 'nemesis' werd gevonden: de Detroit Pistons, onder aanvoering van Isiah Thomas, Joe Dumars en het opkomende verdedigende talent Dennis Rodman. De Bulls verloren met 4-1, maar dat werd niet als een schande beschouwd: de Pistons stootten door tot de finale, waarin ze verloren van de Lakers. Zowel in 1989 als in 1990 zouden de Bulls in de Conference Finals (de finale van play-offteams uit het Oosten, waarvan de Bulls deel uitmaakten) verliezen van diezelfde Pistons, die een effectief defensie-systeem hadden bedacht: de "Jordan Rules", die ervoor zorgden dat Jordan continu dubbel en soms door drie man werd bewaakt.

Veranderingen

Doordat de Bulls te veel op Jordan moesten leunen, besloot het management van de club om een aantal spelers van kaliber te halen. Forward/center Horace Grant werd opgesteld en de veelzijdige 'small forward' Scottie Pippen werd gehaald uit dezelfde "draft" (hij was al gekozen door Seattle, maar werd geruild met de door Bulls gekozen center Olden Polynice). De echte verandering kwam in 1989. Coach Doug Collins werd ontslagen en assistent Phil Jackson werd aangesteld als nieuwe Head Coach. Hij en assistent Tex Winters hadden een ingewikkeld systeem bedacht, genaamd de Triangle Offense (ofwel de Triple Post). Het komt er in het kort op neer dat met vijf spelers drie driehoeken worden gevormd. Die driehoeken zijn de pass-lijnen. Deze tactiek was het laatste stukje van de puzzel voor Jordan en zijn team om succesvol te worden. In 1990 lukte dit nog niet echt, maar dat kwam doordat het team nog niet wist hoe ze de Pistons moesten aanpakken. In 1991 veranderde echter alles.

Kampioenen

Voor de vijfde maal op rij werd Jordan topscorer en leidde ze wederom naar de Conference Finals, opnieuw tegen de Pistons. Ditmaal werd de Triangle Offense beter begrepen. De Pistons werden met 4-0 verslagen en de wereld kon zich opmaken voor een tweestrijd tussen Jordan en de leider van de Los Angeles Lakers, Earvin "Magic" Johnson, die zijn team tussen 1980 en 1988 naar 5 NBA-titels leidde. De Lakers legden het af tegen de ontketende Bulls: 4-1. Jordan maakte in een van de finalewedstrijden "The Move": Tijdens een aanval sneed hij door het midden van de bucket, ontving de pass en ging omhoog voor de eenhandige dunk, die hij makkelijk had kunnen maken. Hij zag echter in zijn ooghoek een verdediger van de Lakers aanstalten maken om omhoog te gaan en hij besloot anders: in 'mid-air' veranderde hij van hand en 'scoopte' de bal via de linkerzijde van het bord binnen. Tweemaal zouden de Bulls hun titel met succes verdedigen: in 1992 tegen de Portland Trail Blazers van Clyde "The Glide" Drexler en in 1993 tegen de Phoenix Suns van de MVP van dat seizoen, Charles Barkley (die overigens dat seizoen van Philadelphia overgekomen was). Jordan werd in 1993 de derde speler ooit die in de NBA-finale twee wedstrijden achter elkaar 40 of meer punten maakte (na Jerry West in zowel 1965 als 1969 en Rick Barry in 1967) en de eerste die dat in vier wedstrijden achter elkaar deed.

Moord op zijn vader

Tijdens de play-offs in 1993 ontstond er een controverse rondom Jordan doordat hij gesignaleerd werd terwijl hij aan het gokken was. In datzelfde jaar gaf hij toe meer dan vijftigduizend dollar te hebben verloren met gokken.

Op 6 oktober 1993 kondigde Jordan aan te stoppen met basketbal, omdat hij zijn verlangen om het spel te spelen had verloren. Later zou hij toegeven dat de moord op zijn vader in juli van dat jaar een belangrijke rol had gespeeld bij zijn beslissing om te stoppen. James Jordan werd vermoord in zijn auto. Hij was even langs de weg gestopt om uit te rusten.

Honkbalcarrière

Jordan terwijl hij voor de Scottsdale Scorpions speelt.

Jordan verraste de wereld door aan te kondigen professioneel honkballer te willen worden. Hij tekende een contract bij de Chicago White Sox om in de minor league te gaan spelen. De White Soxs leenden hem uit aan Birmingham Barons. Zijn slaggemiddelde was .202. Hij sloeg drie homeruns. Daarmee was Jordan een van de slechtst scorende spelers in de League. In 1994 speelde hij ook voor de Scottsdale Scorpions in de Arizona Fall League. Daar lag zijn slaggemiddelde hoger op .252. Na een conflict met de White Soxs in het voorjaar van 1995 omdat deze Jordan tegen de afspraken in als stakingsbreker willen inzetten in een demonstratiewedstrijd besloot Jordan te stoppen met honkballen. Bij zijn beslissing speelde ook mee dat het perspectief om ooit in de Major League uit te komen klein was.

Come Back Kid

Na zijn hierboven omschreven pensioen, de dood van zijn vader en omzwervingen in de honkbalwereld, keerde Jordan in maart 1995 met drie woorden terug in de NBA: "I'm back". Al in zijn vijfde wedstrijd scoorde hij 55 punten tegen de vijand van de jaren 90, de New York Knicks. In dat jaar werden de Bulls in de halve finales van de Eastern Conference door de Orlando Magic van Shaquille O'Neal en Anfernee "Penny" Hardaway met 4-2 verslagen. Orlando Magic zou uiteindelijk de finale halen en die met 4-0 verliezen van de Houston Rockets van Hakeem Olajuwon (in hetzelfde jaar gedraft als Jordan). De Bulls zouden sportieve revanche nemen.

In zijn eerste volledige seizoen na de comeback werd Jordan voor de achtste maal topscorer van de NBA, maar iets veel memorabelers geschiedde: de Bulls werden het eerste team in de geschiedenis van de NBA (die sinds 1947 officieel bestaat) dat 70 wedstrijden won. Ze wonnen er zelfs 72 van de 82. Er volgden nog meer prijzen voor teamleden: Jordan werd MVP, Phil Jackson werd Coach Of The Year, forward Toni Kukoc werd beste zesde man. In de finals versloegen de Bulls de Seattle Supersonics van Shawn "the Reignman" Kemp en Gary "the Glove" Payton. De Bulls zouden hun titel succesvol verdedigen door tweemaal op rij de Utah Jazz van Hall of Fame-tandem Karl Malone (The Mailman) en John Stockton met 4-2 te verslaan. De Bulls hadden iets voor elkaar gekregen wat zelfs de machtige Celtics in de jaren 50 en 60 niet voor elkaar kregen: twee aparte "Three-Peats" (drie opeenvolgende titels). Jordan won in al die jaren ook de Finals MVP-Award en verbrijzelde daarmee het oude record van "Magic" Johnson (drie).

Tweede comeback: de Wizards

Michael Jordan als speler van de Wizards

Jordan kondigde in januari 1999 voor de tweede maal zijn vertrek aan. In 2000 keerde hij terug naar de NBA, maar niet als speler. De basketballegende werd mede-eigenaar van de Washington Wizards en werd hoofd van de afdeling Operaties van de club. De meningen lopen uiteen over hoe goed hij functioneerde in die positie. Hij wist de club te ontdoen van verschillende duurbetaalde, onpopulaire spelers, zoals Rod Strickland en Juwan Howard. Tijdens de NBA Draft van 2001 maakten de Wizards echter een ongelukkige keuze door als eerste voor Kwame Brown te gaan. De middelbare scholier maakte de verwachtingen in de jaren daarna niet waar.

In de zomer van 2001 maakte Jordan bekend wellicht terug te willen keren in de NBA ondanks uitspraken dat "het 99.9 procent zeker was” dat dat niet zou gebeuren. Hij nam alvast een voorschot door Doug Collins, de voormalige hoofdcoach van de Bulls, te benoemen bij de Washington Wizards voor het nieuwe seizoen. Op 25 september kondigde Jordan aan voor de tweede keer een comeback te maken. In het eerste jaar was hij topscorer van het team, maar speelde slechts zestig wedstrijden vanwege een knieblessure. In 2003 speelde hij voor de 15e keer in een NBA All-Star Game en passeerde daarmee Kareem Abdul-Jabbar als recordhouder aller tijden. In dat jaar speelde hij ook alle wedstrijden mee en scoorde gemiddeld 20 punten per wedstrijd. Ondanks zijn eigen goede optreden behaalde de Wizards geen een keer de play-offs. In 2003 speelde Jordan zijn laatste wedstrijd in de NBA.

Clubeigenaar

Na zijn derde afscheid verwachtte Jordan terug te keren naar zijn oude staffunctie bij de Wizards. In mei 2003 ontsloeg clubeigenaar Abe Polin hem echter. Jordan zei dat hij nooit voor de Wizards zou hebben gespeeld als hij had geweten dat dit zou gebeuren. In de jaren daarna was Jordan veel op de golfbaan te vinden, hield zich bezig met zijn gezin en de promotie van een eigen kledinglijn. Verder was hij eigenaar van een eigen motorraceteam.

Jordan kocht in 2006 een minderheidsbelang in het NBA-team de Charlotte Bobcats. Hij had de volledige zeggenschap over alle basketbalgerelateerde zaken. In februari 2010 verkreeg hij een meerderheidsbelang in de Bobcats. In het seizoen 2011-12 bereikten de Cats een historisch dieptepunt door slechts 7 van de 66 wedstrijden te winnen.

Prijzen

  • 6 x NBA Kampioen
  • 5 x NBA Most Valuable Player Award
  • 10 x NBA Scoring champion
  • 15 x NBA All-Star
  • 3 x NBA All-Star Game Most Valuable Player
  • 6 x Bill Russell NBA Finals MVP Award
  • 1 x NBA Defensive Player of the Year
  • 11 x All-NBA selectie (10 x eerste team, 1 x tweede team)
  • 9 x All-Defensive selectie (9x eerste team)
  • NBA All-Rookie selectie
  • NBA Rookie of the Year
  • 2 x NBA Slam Dunk Contest kampioen
  • Gekozen als een van de "50 Greatest Players in NBA History" (1996)
  • Maakte deel uit van 2 teams in "Top 10 teams in NBA History" (1996)
  • Opgenomen in de Basketball Hall of Fame
  • 2 x olympisch goud
  • 1 x Naismith College Player of the Year
  • 1 x John R. Wooden Award
  • 1 x Adolph Rupp Trophy
  • 1 x USBWA College Player of the Year
  • ACC Freshman of the Year
  • 1 x ACC Men's Basketball Player of the Year
  • 1 x The Sporting News College Player of the Year
  • 1 x Sports Illustrated Sportsman of the Year
  • 1ste in SLAM Magazine's Top 75 Players of All-time
  • 1ste in ESPN Sportscentury's Top 100 Athletes of the 20th Century
  • 1 x NCAA National Championship
  • 7 x The Sporting News Most Valuable Player Award

Trivia

  • Jordan maakte ooit 69 punten in één reguliere competitiewedstrijd (1990)[2] en 63 in een playoff-wedstrijd (playoff-record).
  • Het rugnummer van Jordan was 23. Hij speelde na zijn eerste terugkeer in 1995 met het rugnummer 45, omdat zijn vader was overleden en hij een frisse en nieuwe start wilde. Na dit mislukte seizoen echter, besloot hij terug te keren naar nummer 23. Daarvoor speelde hij noodgedwongen met rugnummer 12, nadat zijn jersey in 1990 voor aanvang van de wedstrijd tegen de Orlando Magic uit een tas was gestolen.

Jordan is in samenwerking met Nike ook een schoenenmerk begonnen en iets later ook een kledingmerk

  • De vrouw van Jordan, Juanita, eiste na hun scheiding in januari 2002 de zeggenschap over hun drie kinderen op.
  • Jordan speelde samen met Bugs Bunny in de film Space Jam uit 1996.
  • Jordan speelde in de clip van Michael Jacksons Jam. De single werd ook gebruikt in de 1992 NBA Championship video "Untouchabulls" van de Chicago Bulls', waar Jordan op dat moment speelde.
  • Jordan stond in 2009 met $45 miljoen nog op de 3e plaats van best betaalde sportmannen (dankzij reclame-inkomsten & goede investeringen), terwijl hij al enkele jaren is gestopt.
  • Hij is de eerste speler die tijdens een All-Star Game een triple-double wist te noteren.
  • Hij was na Willis Reed (New York Knicks) in 1970 de tweede speler die alle drie de MVP-awards in een seizoen wist te winnen (Reguliere seizoen, All Star Game, Finals). Hij is echter wel de eerste die dit twee keer wist te doen (1996 en 1998). Shaquille O'Neal won daarna in 2000 nog alle MVP-awards, ook al deelde hij de All Star MVP-Award met Tim Duncan.
  • In 2001 vestigt hij een nieuw. record door op zijn 38ste 51 punten te scoren in één wedstrijd
  • In 2003 wordt hij de eerste 40 -jarige NBA-speler die meer dan 40 punten scoort in één wedstrijd.
  • Op 23 mei 2020 verscheen de documentaireserie The Last Dance op Netflix, waarin de carrière van Michael Jordan en zijn laatste seizoen bij de Chicago Bulls (1997-1998) centraal staat.
  • Op 22 september 2020 werd bekend dat Jordan samen met Denny Hamlin een raceteam op zal richten dat deelneemt in de NASCAR Cup Series. De enige zwarte NASCAR-coureur Bubba Wallace zal plaatsnemen achter het stuur.[3]

Externe links

  • Michael Jordan op Sportingnews.com
  • Google News - Michael Jordan
  • (en) Profiel van Michael Jordan op basketball-reference.com
Logo van de Olympische Spelen 1 Goud 2 Zilver 3 Brons Logo van de Olympische Spelen
2 0 0
Bronnen, noten en/of referenties
  1. People staff, Michael Jordan. People (15 maart 1999).
  2. Jeff Case, Legendary Moments In NBA History: Michael Jordan scores 69 points vs. Cleveland Cavaliers. NBA (27 mei 2018).
  3. Amir Vera and Jill Martin CNN, Michael Jordan and Denny Hamlin team up to start NASCAR team, with Bubba Wallace as a driver. CNN. Geraadpleegd op 22 september 2020.
Bibliografische informatie

Bibsys: 26929
Biblioteca Nacional de Chile: 000851725
Biblioteca Nacional de España: XX1017832
Bibliothèque nationale de France: cb12393181n (data)
CiNii: DA09880297
Gemeinsame Normdatei: 119184486
International Standard Name Identifier: 0000 0001 1455 4934
Library of Congress Control Number: n86020198
Nationale Bibliotheek van Letland: 000268383
MusicBrainz: 6b7ca527-582f-4792-a114-a8381b3c206e
National Central Library: 000951529
Bibliotheek van het Japanse parlement: 00514147
Nationale Bibliotheek van Tsjechië: js20080215004
Nationale Bibliotheek van Israël: 001720424
Nationale Bibliotheek van Polen: A12183970
Nationale en Universitaire bibliotheek Zagreb: 000419198
Nederlandse Thesaurus van Auteursnamen Persoon ID: 112543278
RÉRO (Réseau des bibliothèques de Suisse occidental): 02-A010101514
Russische Staatsbibliotheek: 000133250
SNAC: w6pk1hw4
Système universitaire de documentation: 032511205
Trove: 1036861
Virtual International Authority File: 114945073
WorldCat Identities (via VIAF): 114945073

Mediabestanden
Zie de categorie Michael Jordan van Wikimedia Commons voor mediabestanden over dit onderwerp.
NBA-kampioen
1990-91: Chicago Bulls

2 Hopson · 5 Paxson · 10 Armstrong · 14 Hodges · 23 Jordan · 24 Cartwright · 32 Perdue · 33 Pippen · 34 King · 42 Williams · 53 Levingston · 54 Grant · Coach Jackson

1991-92: Chicago Bulls

5 Paxson · 10 Armstrong · 14 Hodges · 20 Hansen · 23 Jordan · 24 Cartwright · 32 Perdue · 33 Pippen · 34 King · 42 Williams · 53 Levingston · 54 Grant · Coach Jackson

1992-93: Chicago Bulls

5 Paxson · 6 Tucker · 10 Armstrong · 20 Walker · 22 McCray · 23 Jordan · 24 Cartwright · 32 Perdue · 33 Pippen · 34 King · 42 Williams · 54 Grant · Coach Jackson

1995-96: Chicago Bulls

0 Brown · 7 Kukoč · 8 Simpkins · 9 Harper · 13 Longley · 22 Salley · 23 Jordan · 25 Kerr · 30 Buechler · 33 Pippen · 34 Wennington · 35 Caffey · 53 Edwards · 54 Haley · 91 Rodman · Coach Jackson

1996-97: Chicago Bulls

00 Parish · 1 Brown · 7 Kukoč · 8 Simpkins · 9 Harper · 13 Longley · 18 Williams · 23 Jordan · 25 Kerr · 30 Buechler · 33 Pippen · 34 Wennington · 35 Caffey · 91 Rodman · Coach Jackson

1997-98: Chicago Bulls

1 Brown · 5 LaRue · 7 Kukoč · 8 Simpkins · 9 Harper · 13 Longley · 22 Booth · 23 Jordan · 24 Burrell · 25 Kerr · 30 Buechler · 33 Pippen · 34 Wennington · 35 Kleine · 91 Rodman · Coach Jackson

Overgenomen van "https://nl.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Michael_Jordan&oldid=60575702"
Why flat-Earthers are a clear and present threat to an AI ...

29-10-2021 · McIntyre, for example, recalls asking one flat-Earther why planes flying over Antarctica from, say, Chile to New Zealand don’t have to refuel, which they’d have to if the continent were (as ...

29-10-2021

“Fool me once, shame on…shame on you. Fool me – you can’t get fooled again.” Former US President George W Bush.

It’s easy to laugh at someone who believes the Earth is flat. Dunking on pro-diseasers (AKA: antivaxxers) has become one of the internet’s favorite sports. And it’s pretty posh by social media standards to ridicule anyone who questions whether the climate-crisis is real.

There’s always going to be a small, vocal contingency of people who simply cannot be convinced of a ground truth.

Whether these people deserve ridicule is a question for our personal consciences, but one thing is certain: they need to be educated.

Unfortunately, we’ve been trying to do that for decades.

Boston University’s Lee McIntyre, an expert on “science denial,” did an interview in Physics World last year where they described the scope of the problem.

Per the article:

From McIntyre’s perspective, flat-Earth conspiracies are a danger and need confronting. “Maybe 10 or 20 years ago, I would have said, just laugh at them, how much traction are they going to get? I no longer feel that way.”

If these ideas are not challenged, he fears that as with supporters of “intelligent design,” proponents of a flat Earth will start running for US school boards, looking to push their ideas into the US education system.

Experts such as McIntyre have spent entire careers trying to understand and counter science denial. But the core of the problem is much more complex than just challenging bad science or faulty math.

The article goes on to say:

McIntyre, for example, recalls asking one flat-Earther why planes flying over Antarctica from, say, Chile to New Zealand don’t have to refuel, which they’d have to if the continent were (as they believe) an ice wall tens of thousands of kilometres long. He was simply told that planes can fly on one tank of fuel and refuelling (sic) planes could just be a giant hoax to stop us realizing that the Earth is flat.

If we use Physics 101 to clearly and unequivocally demonstrate that the “curvature of the Earth” doesn’t prevent us from seeing distant objects on the horizon, they’ll just claim we’re using the wrong cameras or angles.

Simply put: It’s easier for a large camel to pass through a skinny crevice than it is to convince someone the Earth is not flat when we all have the same information available to us.

But here’s the twist: The majority of people on this planet – whether it’s flat or round – believe ludicrous things about artificial intelligence that could be far more dangerous than any other science-denial belief save, perhaps, climate-crisis denial.

There are almost certainly people from every walk of life, in every industry, at every school, in every police precinct, and working for just about every news outlet who believe things about artificial intelligence that are simply not true.

Let’s make a short list of things that are demonstrably untrue that the general public tends to believe:

  1. Big tech is making progress mitigating racial bias in AI
  2. AI can predict crime
  3. AI can tell if you’re gay
  4. AI writing/images/paintings/videos/audio can fool humans
  5. AI is on the verge of becoming sentient
  6. Having a human in the loop mitigates bias
  7. AI can determine if a job candidate will be successful
  8. AI can determine gender
  9. AI can tell what songs/movies/videos/clothes you’ll like
  10. Human-level self-driving vehicles exist

And that list could go on and on. There are thousands of useless startups and corporations out there running basic algorithms and claiming their systems can do things that no AI can do.

Those that aren’t outright pedaling snake oil often fudge statistics and percentages to mislead people concerning how efficacious their products are.

These range from startups claiming they’ll be able to let you speak with your dead loved ones by feeding an AI system all their old texts and then creating a chatbot that imitates them, all the way to multi-billion dollar big tech outfits such as PredPol.

The people running these companies are either ignorant or disingenuous hucksters who know they’re using the same technology that, for example, IBM’s Watson uses to power the chat bots that pop up when you go to your bank’s website. “How can we help?”

And it’s just as bad in academia. When researchers claim that a text generator or style imitation algorithm can “fool” people with its text or “paintings,” they’re not employing expert opinions, they’re asking Mechanical Turk Workers what they think.

You can’t predict crime.

You can’t tell if someone’s queer using AI.

You can’t tell someone’s politics using AI.

You can’t tell if someone’s a terrorist by looking at their face.

Tesla’s automobiles cannot safely drive themselves no matter what a video you’ve watched on YouTube or Twitter appears to show you.

Netflix doesn’t know what you want to watch, Spotify doesn’t know what you want to hear, and Twitter certainly doesn’t know what conversations you want to engage in.

Big tech is not making any demonstrable progress on mitigating racial bias. They’re simply tweaking their individual systems to demonstrate mathematically insignificant “increases” in algorithmic bias detection.

And AI cannot tell if a job candidate is right for a job.

The idea of sentient, living, or conscious AI is fiction, for now.

So, why do entire governments endorse shitty products such as those pedaled by the snake oil salespeople at PredPol and ShotSpotter?

Why does Stanford continue to support research from a team that claims it can use AI to tell if a person is gay or liberal?

Why is Tesla’s Full Self Driving and Autopilot software so popular when it clearly and demonstrably is nowhere near safely self-driving or autopiloting a vehicle?

Why do so many people believe that GPT-3 can fool humans?

Because trillions upon trillions of dollars are at stake and because these systems all provide a clear benefit to their users aside from their advertised use cases.

When police are accused of over-policing Black neighborhoods, the only logical defense would be to demonstrate an equal distribution of officer-coverage over areas of racially-disparate geography.

But, that would mean the police can’t over-police Black neighborhoods anymore. PredPol’s software allows the police to lie to the public by claiming that the number of historical arrests is a predictor of the number of future crimes.

And, sadly, it appears as though this simple trick of math is something the general public simply doesn’t get.

It’s the same with companies that use hiring software to determine who the best candidates are.

AI can’t tell you who the best candidate is. What it can do, is reinforce your existing biases by taking your records on candidates that have traditionally done well and applying them as a filter over potential candidates. Thus, the ultimate goal of these systems is to empower a business to choose the candidates it wants and, if there are accusations of bias, HR can just blame the algorithm.

But there’s a pretty good chance that most people, even many who develop AI technologies themselves, believe at least one of these big lies about what AI can and can’t do.

And, to one degree or another, we’re all being exploited because of those misguided beliefs.

If we should be afraid of electing flat-Earthers, or having pro-diseasers in our schools, or cops on the force who believe the US election was rigged by democrats who literally eat babies, then we should be absolutely terrified about what’s happening in the world of AI.

After all, if the flat-Earth and antivaxx movements are growing exponentially year over year, what possible hope could we have of stalling out the mass-held belief that AI can do all sorts of things that are demonstrably impossible?

How much harm can ignorance cause?

Have a Happy Halloween.

4 Signs of the End Times - David Jeremiah Blog

19-10-2021 · Biblical prophecy reminds us that the deception, conflict, devastation, and tribulation of the Last Days is no match for Almighty God. When we experience terrible events like the COVID-19 pandemic and persecution, Scripture reminds us that God declares “the end from the beginning” and that His “counsel shall stand” (Isaiah 46:10).

19-10-2021

When we read the headlines, it is not hard to see that our world is on a downward slide. Political tensions, natural disasters, and disease outbreaks are escalating.  More and more professed believers seem to be falling away from the faith. It has caused many people to wonder whether these events are part of biblical prophecy.

I can say with certainty that we are closer to the Rapture and the Tribulation than ever before. And, even as the world hurtles toward earth’s Last Days, we can find hope in God’s Word.

The next prophetic event described in Scripture is the Rapture. On that day, “The Lord himself will come down from heaven with a commanding shout, with the voice of the archangel, and with the trumpet call of God. First, the believers who have died will rise from their graves. Then, together with them, we who are still alive and remain on the earth will be caught up in the clouds to meet the Lord in the air. Then we will be with the Lord forever” (1 Thessalonians 4:16-17, NLT).

In His Olivet Discourse, Jesus stated that no one—including Himself and the angels—knows when the Rapture will occur (Matthew 24:36). But prophetic events cast shadows, giving us a foreshadowing of what is to come. In anticipation of the end of the age, our Lord outlined several signs that would indicate His return was drawing near. These phenomena are increasingly evident in our world today.

The Sign of Deception

As we move toward the Last Days, Jesus said there would be an increasing danger of deception by false teachers. “Take heed that no one deceives you. For many will come in My name, saying, ‘I am the Christ,’ and will deceive many” (Matthew 24:4-5). More and more people will search for leaders to deliver them, and they will seek mystics and religious leaders who claim to have deeper knowledge.

Deception may be one of the greatest threats to the Church today, but it is nothing new. Before the religious reforms of ancient Israel’s King Josiah, the priests—God’s representatives to the people—set up idols to false gods in the temple (2 Kings 23:4). And the people willingly participated in this idolatry. They didn’t throw God out of their worship. Instead, they treated Him like He was one of many gods. The Israelites synthesized their religion with another.

Meme: A spirit of deception is taking hold of our culture.

This type of syncretism is rampant in the world today. Our society is characterized by a culture of toleration that works for everybody but Christians. There is great acceptance and understanding for all sorts of immoral behavior, yet the world considers it unacceptable to speak of absolute Truth. In response, some churches and pastors have departed from sound doctrine. This isn’t just another trend. It is a spirit of deception taking hold of our culture.

For all the deception going on today, we cannot spend our time chasing down every rumor. Our time is better spent focusing on the solution, and that is Jesus Christ. In John 14:6, He said, “I am the way, the truth, and the life. No one comes to the Father except through Me.” Through Him, we “shall know the truth, and the truth shall make [us] free” (John 8:32).

The Sign of Disputes Among Nations

Jesus warned His disciples that the end of the age would be marked by “wars and rumors of wars” with nations rising against each other (Matthew 24: 6, 7). As dissension escalates, we can view it as a sign of the times. The book of Revelation tells us that conflict—ceaseless, unending, terrible war—will fill the Tribulation period, and it will escalate until the entire world is involved.

Many countries live at peace today, but there is a growing sense of instability in international affairs. It has been reported that fifty percent of all research scientists are involved in arms development. There is at least one military weapon and four thousand pounds of explosives for every man, woman, and child on earth. In 2019, global military expenditures grew to an astonishing 1.92 trillion U.S. dollars.1 As shocking as this may seem, long ago the Bible predicted an escalation of conflict, border skirmishes, race wars, and national battles during the End Times.

The Sign of Devastation

Along with the deception and disputes of the Last Days, Jesus warned of “famines, pestilences, and earthquakes in various places” (Matthew 24:7). We live in a day when we can scarcely turn on the TV without seeing someone trying to raise money to feed the hungry. Even though God has blessed us with a fruitful, abundant planet, millions of people in the world face food insecurity and scarcity.

COVID-19 has raised global awareness of our vulnerability to novel diseases, but it isn’t the only outbreak in our world today. According to the World Health Organization, there have been recent outbreaks of yellow fever, the plague, Nipah virus, meningitis, and many others.2 To make matters worse, “superbugs” are developing resistance to antibiotics.

We are also witnessing an increase in the frequency and intensity of earthquakes. Between 1900 and 1969, there were roughly six major quakes every ten years. Recent data indicates that “major earthquakes” now occur more than once a month and “great earthquakes” shake the globe every year.3 All of these devastating trends are signs that point to the imminent return of Jesus Christ.

The Sign of Deliverance Into Tribulation

In the Last Days, there will be an explosion of antagonism toward God’s people: “Then they will deliver you up to tribulation and kill you, and you will be hated by all nations for My name’s sake” (Matthew 24:9). We are already seeing evidence of this today. Headlines carry stories about Christian business owners who are expected to set aside their beliefs in support of secular, progressive ideals. Universities and school boards admit to routinely passing over Christian faculty members for promotions.  Everywhere we look, Christianity is under attack in America.

Meme: Christianity is under attack in America.

Globally, the situation is even more sobering. During the 2021 World Watch List reporting period, Open Doors recorded the following crimes against God’s people:

  • More than 340 million Christians lived under high levels of persecution and discrimination
  • 4,761 Christians were martyred
  • 4,488 churches and other Christian-affiliated buildings were attacked
  • 4,277 believers were detained without trial, arrested, sentenced or imprisoned4

As the Tribulation approaches, many more will pay a high price for living out their faith in our world.

The Olivet Discourse is one of the most comprehensive outlines of prophecy in Scripture. Jesus shared this information so that we could see and understand the times. In Matthew 24:6, He told His disciples, “See to it that you are not troubled; for all these things must come to pass.”

Biblical prophecy reminds us that the deception, conflict, devastation, and tribulation of the Last Days is no match for Almighty God. When we experience terrible events like the COVID-19 pandemic and persecution, Scripture reminds us that God declares “the end from the beginning” and that His “counsel shall stand” (Isaiah 46:10). By understanding the signs of the End Times in this context, we can join the apostle Paul in saying, “For our light affliction, which is but for a moment, is working for us a far more exceeding and eternal weight of glory” (2 Corinthians 4:17).

Sources:

1M. Szmigiera, “Countries with the highest military spending 2020,” Statista, accessed October 7, 2021, https://www.statista.com/statistics/262742/countries-with-the-highest-military-spending/.
2“Disease Outbreak News (DONs),” World Health Organization, accessed October 7, 2021, https://www.who.int/emergencies/disease-outbreak-news.
3“How Often Do Earthquakes Occur?” Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology, accessed October 7, 2021, https://www.iris.edu/hq/inclass/fact-sheet/how_often_do_earthquakes_occur.
4“Christian Persecution,” Open Doors, accessed on October 7, 2021, https://www.opendoorsusa.org/christian-persecution.

For deeper study of Revelation and Prophecy, visit Dr. Jeremiah’s Prophecy Academy where you will find a panorama of prophetic materials to enhance your understanding of God’s Plan for the end of the world.

Continue your study of biblical prophecy with these other popular articles by David Jeremiah:

Seven Churches of Revelation Bible Study

Becoming a Cashless Society—A Financial Sign of the End Times

What Is the Tribulation?

Why Would Anyone Accept the Mark of the Beast?

What is the Great White Throne Judgment in Revelation?

The False Prophet in the Book of Revelation

11 Answers to Questions About the End Times

What Is the Rapture?

What Is the Millennium? 7 Answers to 7 Questions

the 144,000 in the Book of Revelation

The Revelation Prophecy Timeline

See all prophecy articles here >

en.wikipedia.org

18-12-2021 · The process of acquiring a taste can involve developmental maturation, genetics (of both taste sensitivity and personality), family example, and biochemical reward properties of foods. Infants are born preferring sweet foods and rejecting sour and bitter tastes, and they develop a preference for salt at approximately 4 months.

18-12-2021
Appreciation of something initially unpleasant
For other uses, see Acquired Taste (disambiguation).

An acquired taste is an appreciation for something unlikely to be enjoyed by a person who has not had substantial exposure to it. It is the opposite of innate taste, which is the appreciation for things that are enjoyable by most persons without prior exposure to them.

Characteristics

In case of food and drink, the difficulty of enjoying the product may be due to a strong odor (such as certain types of cheese, durian, hákarl, black salt, nattō, asafoetida, surströmming, or stinky tofu), taste (as in alcoholic beverages, coffee, Vegemite or Marmite, bitter teas, liquorice/salty liquorice, malt bread, unsweetened chocolate, garnatálg, rakfisk, soused herring, haggis), mouthfeel (such as sashimi and sushi featuring uncooked seafood), appearance, or association (such as eating insects or organ meat).

Examples

The following items can be described as "acquired tastes", often due to combination of both unfamiliarity and intensity of taste. In principle, though, anything for which one can have a taste, can also become an acquired taste. An acquired taste is distinguished by how one comes to have the taste, not what the thing in question is.

  • Absinthe, a strong herbal spirit, often with pronounced anise and bitter (wormwood) flavors[1][2]
  • Achar, South Asian pickles
  • Aloe vera, a type of plant whose inner pulp is sometimes used in drinks, very common in Japan
  • Anchovies, small fish cured in brine, known for their intensely strong flavor, often used as a pizza topping
  • Andouillette, a French tripe sausage
  • Artichoke
  • Balut, a boiled, fertilized duck egg
  • Beondegi, steamed or boiled silkworm pupa, popular in Korean cuisine
  • Beer, especially strong ales and stouts
  • Bitters, an alcohol flavoured with bitter plant extracts, used as an additive in cocktails or as a medicinal substance to promote appetite or digestion.
  • Bitter melon, an extremely bitter fruit similar to cucumber
  • Blood sausage, sausage made by cooking animal blood with a filler until it is thick enough to congeal when cooled
  • Brussels sprout
  • Bosintang, a Korean meal with dog meat
  • Boza, a fermented corn drink of Turkish origin, also popular on the Balkans
  • Calamari (squid)
  • Camel paw, a Chinese delicacy served in the Forbidden City
  • Campari, a bitter Italian aperitif
  • Capers, pickled and salted buds or fruits of the caper shrub.
  • Casu marzu, a Sardinian cheese containing live insect larvae
  • Cauliflower
  • Caviar, a prized delicacy consisting of salted roe (fish eggs) from sturgeon
  • Century egg, a specially preserved Chinese egg
  • Chamoy, heavily-salted Mexican plum or apricot paste with chili powder
  • Strongly-flavored cheeses, such as Blue cheese, Gamalost, Goat cheese, or Limburger
  • Chili pepper the common source of "hot" spices.
  • Chitterlings (commonly referred to as chitlins), boiled or stewed pig intestines
  • Cilantro, (also known as coriander), some people perceive an unpleasant "soapy" taste and/or a rank smell. This is believed to be a result of an enzyme that changes the way they taste coriander leaves (a genetic trait).
  • Clamato, a drink made primarily of reconstituted tomato juice concentrate and reconstituted dried clam broth, with a dash of high-fructose corn syrup, and USDA Red 40 to maintain a 'natural' tomato colour
  • Coffee, a bitter beverage prepared from roasted coffee seeds
  • Cow Cod Soup, Jamaican bull penis soup
  • Cow tongue
  • Cup cheese, a Pennsylvania Dutch runny cheese, sharp or mild, having roughly the color and consistency of snot
  • Dark chocolate, processed chocolate that has little or no added sugar or milk, and therefore has a bitter taste.
  • Dijon mustard
  • Durian, a pungent southeast Asian fruit
  • Eel, seafood, an Anguilliform
  • Eulachon grease, extracted from eulachon fish
  • Feet, of cow, calf, pig, duck, chicken, camel, goat, etc.
  • Fernet, a particularly strong, grape based, herbal digestif
  • Fish Sauce, a condiment derived from fish that have been allowed to ferment
  • Gravlax, raw-marinated salmon
  • Garlic
  • Gull eggs, eaten boiled and popular in Scandinavia and some partes of Scotland and Ireland
  • Haggis, a traditional Scottish dish mainly consisting of minced sheep offal, boiled in a sheep's stomach.
  • Hajmola, a digestive candy made in India.
  • Hákarl, putrefied Iceland shark
  • Head cheese, a dish made of meat from an animal's skull covered with gelatin (usually set in a mold)
  • Huitlacoche, fungus-infected maize, popular in Mexico
  • Insects, including grubs, ants, grasshoppers, locusts, etc.
  • Islay whisky, Scotch whisky made on Islay, known for its distinctive peaty character
  • Jägermeister, a strong German herbal digestif
  • Jiló, bitter fruit (cooked as a vegetable) popular in Brazil
  • Kimchi, traditional Korean dish of fermented chili peppers and vegetables, usually made from Chinese cabbage
  • Kola Nut, an extremely bitter nut used in West Africa
  • Kutti pi, an Anglo-Indian dish consisting of goat fetus
  • Liver and/or liverwurst
  • Lapsang souchong, smoked Chinese black tea
  • Lobster tomalley, the soft, green substance found in the body cavity of lobsters, that fulfills the functions of both the liver and the pancreas.
  • Lutefisk, Nordic lye-soaked whitefish
  • Marmite, Vegemite or Cenovis, spreads made from yeast extract
  • Mate, the infusion of yerba mate
  • Moxie, a bitter carbonated beverage containing gentian root extract
  • Mugicha, or barley tea, which is a popular Japanese beverage
  • Edible Mushrooms, a mushroom that can potentially be safely eaten.
  • Nattō, Japanese fermented soybeans
  • Octopus, seafood, a cephalopod
  • Olives, fermented or cured fruit of the olive tree, come in different varieties and have a salty, bitter, oily taste.
  • Organ meats, whether tripe, brains, eyeballs, giblets, liver, sweetbreads, etc.
  • Peanut butter
  • Pickled eggs
  • Pickled pigs feet
  • Pork rind, the cooked skin of a pork
  • Pu erh, a compressed, aged tea dominated by strong, earthy overtones
  • Rakfisk, a Norwegian fermented fish dish often served with the delicacies Lefse and Flatbrød.
  • Rivella, a Swiss carbonated soft drink. It is made from whey, also known as milk plasma.
  • Root beer, an herbal flavored soft drink
  • Rocky Mountain oysters, testicles of bull or boar
  • Prairie Oysters, testicles of a bull, calf, or deer. Term originates from Canadian Prairies.
  • Salmiak Drop, Finnish/Dutch ammonium salt liquorice candy
  • Sea cucumber
  • Sea urchin
  • Scotch whisky, a woody tasting alcoholic substance.
  • Scrapple, a slab of leftover pork parts.
  • Smalahove, the head of a lamb
  • Stink Bean, beans bearing a rather peculiar smell, quite popular in southeast Asia
  • Stinky tofu, a form of fermented tofu, which, as the name suggests, has a strong odor.
  • Sun dried tomatoes
  • Surströmming, Swedish fermented Baltic herring
  • Sushi, a Japanese food sometimes made with raw fish and sashimi
  • Switchel, an Anglo-caribbean summer drink based on vinegar and molasses, also called Haymaker's Punch
  • Tempeh, a fermented food made from soybeans popular in Southeast Asia
  • Tonic water, carbonated water flavored with quinine, giving the beverage its bitter taste.
  • Tobacco, Smoked, chewed, etc ; some also claim Cannabis is an acquired taste.
  • Unicum, a Hungarian herbal bitter
  • Wasabi, and similarly Horseradish, due to their pungent odors and strong taste
  • Wine and fortified wine

Acquiring the taste

General acquisition of tastes

The process of acquiring a taste can involve developmental maturation, genetics (of both taste sensitivity and personality), family example, and biochemical reward properties of foods. Infants are born preferring sweet foods and rejecting sour and bitter tastes, and they develop a preference for salt at approximately 4 months. However, vegetables tend to be a favourite as they start to learn to feed themselves. Neophobia (fear of novelty) tends to vary with age in predictable, but not linear, ways. Babies just beginning to eat solid foods generally accept a wide variety of foods, toddlers and young children are relatively neophobic towards food, and older children, adults, and the elderly are often adventurous eaters with wide-ranging tastes.[3]

The general personality trait of novelty-seeking does not necessarily correlate highly with willingness to try new foods. Level of food adventurousness may explain much of the variability of food preferences observed in "supertasters". Supertasters are highly sensitive to bitter, spicy, and pungent flavours, and some avoid them and like to eat only mild, plain foods, but many supertasters who have high food adventurousness enjoy these intense flavors and seek them out.[4] Some chemicals or combinations of chemicals in foods provide both flavor and beneficial or enjoyable effects on the body and mind and may be reinforcing, leading to an acquired taste. A study that investigated the effect of adding caffeine and theobromine (active compounds in chocolate) vs. a placebo to identically-flavored drinks that participants tasted several times, yielded the development of a strong preference for the drink with the compounds.[5]

Intentional acquisition of tastes

Intentionally changing one's preferences can be hard to accomplish. It usually requires a deliberate effort, acting as if one likes something in order to have the responses and feelings that will produce the desired taste. The challenge becomes one of distinguishing authentic or legitimate acquired tastes as a result of deeply considered preference changes from inauthentic ones motivated by status or conformity.[6][7]

See also

  • Aftertaste
  • Food choice
  • Food preferences in older adults and seniors
  • Habituation
  • Taste

References

  1. ^ Absinthe, What is Absinthe? About its Science, Chemistry and Structure
  2. ^ Absinthe, the Potent Green Fairy
  3. ^ Birch, L. L. (1999). "Development of food preferences". Annual Review of Nutrition. 19 (1): 41–62. doi:10.1146/annurev.nutr.19.1.41. PMID 10448516.
  4. ^ Ullrich, N. V.; Touger-Decker, R.; O’Sullivan-Maillet, J.; Tepper, B. J. (2004). "PROP taster status and self-perceived food adventurousness influence food preferences". Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 104 (4): 543–549. doi:10.1016/j.jada.2004.01.011. PMID 15054337.
  5. ^ Smit, H. J.; Blackburn, R. J. (2005). "Reinforcing effects of caffeine and theobromine as found in chocolate". Psychopharmacology. 181 (1): 101–106. doi:10.1007/s00213-005-2209-3. PMID 15772863. S2CID 28790932.
  6. ^ Bovens, L. (1992). "Sour Grapes and Character Planning". The Journal of Philosophy. 89 (2): 57–78. doi:10.2307/2027152. JSTOR 2027152.
  7. ^ Bovens, L. (1995). "The Intentional Acquisition of Mental States". Philosophy and Phenomenological Research. 55 (4): 821–840. doi:10.2307/2108334. JSTOR 2108334.

Further reading

  • Otis, L. P. (1984). "Factors Influencing the Willingness to Taste Unusual Foods". Psychological Reports. 54 (3): 739–745. doi:10.2466/pr0.1984.54.3.739. S2CID 144931730.
Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Acquired_taste&oldid=1060960461"
21 places to order a Thanksgiving meal to enjoy at home ...

22-11-2021 · Ready to heat and eat turkey and ham dinners, for $59.99, serving 8-10. A la carte items are available as well at some stores, as are holiday dinners for 2. 9-12 pound fully cooked Butterball Turkey or 7-9 pound Harris Teeter Spiral Sliced Ham; Turkey gravy ; …

22-11-2021

Photo: Depositphotos

Every year we put together a list of grocery stores, restaurants and catering companies that let you can order your Thanksgiving meal ahead of time.

We will be adding more information to this list as we receive it! This list will grow a lot.

We have put together a huge list of holiday events in the Triangle, including parades, festivals, markets, Santa visits, and more. Check out our growing day by day list of holiday events in the Triangle!

These meals definitely save time, and for most of them the price per person  isn’t too bad. Some arrive hot and some need to be heated up. Make sure to follow the links for full information. Our listings below include just a taste of all the options.

When these deals are announced, you’ll want to order quickly, as these deals are subject to selling out. Make sure to follow each link to see the details, including the deadline for ordering for Thanksgiving.

You’ll typically get a turkey (or ham), gravy, stuffing, and several sides. You might want to supplement the meal with extra sides.

If you’d rather dine out for Thanksgiving, this list of restaurants in the Triangle serving Thanksgiving dinner will be updated soon. Don’t delay in making reservations. Many of these restaurants will also offer takeout or delivery, so you’ll have another way of enjoying somebody else’s cooking at home.

Note: The prices or offerings for the to-go meals might vary by location.

Weaver Street Market

Weaver Street Market offers many holiday meals, including complete holiday dinners, fresh and pre-roasted turkeys, side dishes and more.

Turkey dinner for 6 to 8 is $139.99

  • Jaindl Farms Free-Range, Antibiotic-Free Pre-Roasted Turkey (12 lb average cooked weight)
  • Traditional Mashed Potatoes
  • Crunchy Sweet Potato Bake
  • Apple Pecan Stuffing
  • Roasted Sweet Potatoes, Rutabagas, & Carrots
  • Soft Dinner Rolls, doz.
  • Homemade Turkey Gravy, qt.
  • Fresh Cranberry Relish, pt.

Order by Friday, November 19th, 2021, at 9 p.m. Pick-up dates are November 20th to 27th, 2021. More info.
Updated for 2021.

Harris Teeter

Ready to heat and eat turkey and ham dinners, for $59.99, serving 8-10. A la carte items are available as well at some stores, as are holiday dinners for 2.

  • 9-12 pound fully cooked Butterball Turkey or 7-9 pound Harris Teeter Spiral Sliced Ham
  • Turkey gravy
  • Fresh cranberry relish
  • Choice of three sides, including mashed potatoes, green been casserole, sweet potato casserole and cornbread stuffing

Order online or in store. Order must be placed at least 24 hours in advance. Available pickup days are November 15th to 25th for Thanksgiving. And December 11th to 24th, for Christmas. More info.

Golden Corral

Golden Corral’s Holiday Feast feeds 6 to 8 and costs $79.99

  • Carved Roast Turkey or Carved Holiday Glazed Ham
  • Mashed potatoes
  • Gravy
  • Cornbread stuffing
  • Cranberry sauce
  • Yeast rolls
  • One additional side choice
  • Choice of pumpkin or pecan pie

Order online or at your local Golden Corral through November 21st, 2021, to receive meal by November 25th. More info.

Wegmans

Classic turkey dinner for 10 is $140

  • Fully cooked 12-14 lb. whole turkey from Plainville Farms (ready to heat and serve)Herb Bread Stuffing
  • Mashed Potatoes
  • Green Bean & Mushroom Casserole with Crispy Onions
  • Mashed Sweet Potatoes
  • Homestyle Gravy
  • Cranberry Orange Relish

There are many other options, including a ham dinner, a hand-carved turkey dinner and more. More info.
Updated for 2021. 

Sage & Swift

Thanksgiving to-go meals from $120 (for 2) to $195 (for 4). Various a la carte options are also available.

  • Free range turkey with gravy and extra stock for basting (oven-ready or table-ready)
  • Choice of soup
  • Cranberry sauce or cranberry orange relish
  • Choice of pie
  • 4 sides
  • Milk bread rolls or cornbread

Pick up at 3710 Shannon Road, Durham. More info.
Updated for 2021.

Metro Diner

Holiday Feast To-Go. Available for a party of one $15.99), four ($59.99), or eight (115.49)

  • Maple glazed ham or roasted turkey
  • Mashed potatoes and gravy or sweet potato mash
  • Steamed green beans or green bean casserole
  • Savory cornbread stuffing or macaroni and cheese
  • Cranberry sauce
  • Hawaiian dinner rolls

These feasts come cold, to be heated up at home. Pre-orders through November 22ndj, 2021. Pickup times are from 8 am. to 8 p.m. on Tuesday, November 23rd, and Wednesday, November 24th, and from 8 a.m. to 2 p.m. on November 25th. In addition, all diners will be open on Thanksgiving Day for table service until 2:30 p.m. More info.

Logan’s Roadhouse

Logan’s Roadhouse is offering a 4-pound Prime Rib or Turkey Breast meal for $99.99. It serves 6-8.

  • Prime rib or turkey breast
  • Family-sized house salad
  • Choice of two classic side
  • Dozen signature made-from-scratch yeast rolls
  • Mississippi Brownie

Order online or by phone. Pickup at Logan’s Roadhouse from 11 a.m. to 4 p.m. It will also be open from 4 p.m. to 9 p.m. for dine-in. More info. 1000 Timber Drive East, Garner.

City BBQ

City BBQ offers The Big Meal, which costs $164.99 and feeds 12-16, and the Turkey Breast Meal, which costs $79.99 and feeds 6-8.

The Big Meal:

  • Whole smoked turkey or bone-in ham
  • Two sides of your choice, one pan each
  • Dozen buns or a quart of gravy

Turkey Breast Meal:

  • Slow-smoked turkey breast
  • Two sides of your choice, a quart each
  • Half dozen buns or a pint of gravy

Call in your order. More info.
Updated for 2021.

Cracker Barrel

Photo courtesy of Cracker Barrel

Thanksgiving Heat ‘n’ Serve feast for 8-10 people (starting at $139.99) or 4-6 people ($89.99)

8-10 person feast includes:

  • Two oven-roasted turkey breasts
  • Cornbread dressing
  • Turkey gravy
  • Cranberry relish
  • Sweet potato casserole with pecans
  • Choice of two country sides
  • Sweet yeast rolls
  • Pumpkin pie and pecan pie

Available for pickup November 20th to 27th, 2021, while supplies last. Pre-order and receive a free $10 Bonus Card if you schedule pickup on November 22nd or 23rd. More info.
Updated for 2021

Costco Wholesale

Schwan’s 8-person Thanksgiving Meal$119.99

Serves 8

Unlike some of the other meals, this one is shipped to you, frozen. You don’t pick it up. No thawing required. You cook from frozen.

  • 2 2.5 lb. Ready-to-Roast turkey breast (5 total pounds, 20 servings)
  • Roasted Baker Bakers Potatoes 2 pounds (11 servings)
  • Roasted sweet potatoes 2 pounds (10 servings)
  • MicroSteam Whole Green Beans 3 12oz. bags (12 servings)
  • Super-Sweet Corn 36 ounces (11 servings)
  • Southern-style biscuit dough 18 2.2 ounce biscuits
  • Traditional Pumpkin Pie 9-inch pie (8 servings)
  • Old fashioned Apple Pie 10-inch pie (12 servings)
  • Classic vanilla ice cream 56 fl ounces (11 servings)

Membership required. Orders only ship on weekdays. Due to the perishable nature of this item orders do NOT ship over the weekend. Orders will only ship Monday, Tuesday & Wednesday for Wednesday, Thursday, Friday Delivery. Orders placed after 12pm your local time on Wednesday will ship the following Monday.  More info.
Updated for 2021

Boston Market

Turkey Dinner for 12$129.99

  • Whole roasted turkey
  • Spinach artichoke dip and crackers
  • Vegetable stuffing
  • Cranberry walnut relish
  • Dinner rolls
  • Mashed potatoes
  • Gravy
  • Apple pie
  • Pumpkin pie

There are several other options:

  • Prime rib meal
  • Boneless roasted turkey breast meal
  • Spiral-sliced ham meal
  • À La Carte options

Boston Market is typically open on Thanksgiving, so you probably eat there if you’d prefer. More info.
Updated for 2021.

Bob Evans

Premium Farmhouse feast with turkey and ham. Serves 8-10. $129.99.

  • Hickory-smoked ham
  • Slow-roasted turkey
  • Bread and celery dressing
  • Macaroni and cheese
  • Corn
  • Mashed potatoes with gravy
  • Green beans with ham
  • Cranberry relish

Other options include a feast with just ham, or with just turkey. Available for delivery, takeout or curbside pickup (when available.) Arrives cold. Just heat up. More info.
Updated for 2021.

Chef’s Palette

Roasted turkey breast (available in 2 or 4 pounds; $12/pound)
Baked ham (available in 2 or 4 pounds; $12/pound)

Family sides are each $15 and serve 4 people

  • Mashed potatoes
  • Green been casserole
  • Macaroni and cheese
  • Sage sausage stuffing
  • Cold broccoli salad
  • House salad

Extras:

  • Pint of cranberry relish ($5)
  • Pint of extra gravy ($5)
  • Extra dinner rolls (50 cents each

Call to order. Orders will be scheduled for pick-up on Thursday, November 25th, 2021, from 11 a.m. to 4 p.m.More info. 3460 Ten Ten Road, Cary. 919-267-6011.
Updated for 2021

Seasons 52

Thanksgiving Green Box to Go. Serves 4-6 for $175

Last day to preorder is Monday, November 22nd, 2021. Pickup is Wednesday, November 24th, 2021.

  • Roasted “Never Ever” Turkey (no antibiotics)
  • Savory pan gravy
  • Yukon mashed potatoes
  • Brioche and sage stuffing
  • Green beans
  • Mashed butternut squash
  • Housemade cranberry relish
  • Fresh field green salad
  • 6 Pumpkin Pie Mini Indulgences

4325 Glenwood Avenue, Raleigh. More info.
Updated for 2021.

Acme

The Acme Thanksgiving Feast serves 2 people for $85

  • Deep-fried Carolina Turkey
  • Sage and rosemary stuffing
  • Slow-cooked collard greens
  • Southern green beans
  • Cranberry ginger compote
  • Bourbon mashed sweet potatoes
  • Acme mashed potatoes
  • Country ham and mushroom gravy

Pickup on Wednesday, November 24th, 2021, from 2:30 p.m. to 5 p.m., or on Thursday, November 25th, from 11 a.m. to 1:30 p.m. More info here and here. 110 E. Main Street, Carrboro.
Updated for 2021.

Donovan’s Dish

Thanksgiving dinner for 6 for $195. Individual meals are available too, as are add-ons like Big John’s Mac & Cheese, Bourbon meatballs and more.

  • Fresh carved roast turkey
  • House made cranberry sauce
  • Cornbread stuffing
  • Signature truffle whipped potatoes
  • Whipped NC sweet potatoes
  • Sautéed green beans
  • Savory sage gravy
  • “Fresh out of the oven” rolls
  • Your choice of a scratch-made apple, pecan or pumpkin pie.

Order by Sunday, November 21st. Delivery or pickup at 800 W. Williams Street, Apex on Tuesday, November 23rd, or Wednesday, November 24th, 2021. More info.
Updated for 2021.

Figs

Holiday turkey dinner for 6 is $199. Also available is a holiday turkey dinner for 12 for $379. More options available as well.

  • Roasted turkey – breast and dark meat included
  • Mashed potatoes loaded with sour cream, cheddar, chives.
  • Classic Sweet potato casserole
  • Old school green bean casserole
  • Classic stuffing
  • Gravy
  • Cranberry Sauce
  • Rolls
  • Choice of Pie: Apple, Pumpkin, Pecan or Chocolate

Order by November 19th, at 12 p.m., for pickup or delivery on Wednesday, November 24th. 2319 Laurelbrook Street, Raleigh. More info.
Updated for 2021.

Rocky Top Catering

Dinner for 4 for $200 plus 20% service charge.

  • Hand-carved oven roasted turkey (1 pound)
  • Brown sugar glazed ham (1 pound)
  • Roasted garlic mashed potatoes
  • Whipped sweet potatoes
  • House-made pimento mac and cheese
  • Buttery southern green beans
  • Oven roasted autumn root vegetables
  • House made cranberry sauce
  • Pork sausage and sage dressing
  • House-made cornbread muffins, buttermilk biscuits and sweet potato biscuits, with honey butter (3 each)
  • Turkey gravy
  • Housemade pie or cookies

Pick up take & bake on Wednesday, November 24th, from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. Or get a hot & ready meal Thursday, November 25th, from 11 a.m. to 3 p.m. Pick up is at 5000 Departure Drive, Raleigh. More info here and here.
Updated for 2021.

TimeOut

Regular Holiday Bundle serves 4-6 people and costs $132.99. Many other options are also available.

  • 12-14 pound whole turkey, roasted or fried
  • 1 quart stuffing
  • 6 yeast rolls or cornbread
  • 1 gallon tea (sweet or unsweetened)
  • Whole pie (pecan or sweet potato)
  • 2 quarts of sides (pick from the following)
  • Mashed potatoes
  • Mashed potatoes with gravy
  • Potato salad
  • Succotash
  • Cole slaw
  • Cabbage
  • Collard greens
  • Green beans
  • Macaroni and cheese

Available for pickup only. Please allow at least 48 hours and make sure to specify the date and time of pickup when you order. 201 East Franklin Street, Chapel Hill. More info.
Updated for 2021.

Offering a three-course Thanksgiving take-and-warm dinner, portioned for 5 or 10 people. Price TBA.

Pre-orders from November 1st to 22nd, 2021, with pickups available from Tuesday, November 23rd, at 11 a.m., to Thursday, November 25th, at 12 p.m. 410 Glenwood Avenue, Raleigh. More info.
Updated for 2021.

Perry’s Steakhouse & Grill

Order an individual Thanksgiving dinner for $45, or a family-style Thanksgiving dinner for 4 for $139. There’s also a kid’s Thanksgiving entrée plate with sides for $15, for children 12 and under.

  • Family-style soup or salad
  • Entrée
  • Sides

Pickup available November 23rd to 25th. Available cold, to be re-heated, or, on November 25th, hot. 4509 Creedmoor Road, Raleigh. Perry’s will also be open for dine-in or to-go on Thanksgiving Day. More info.

Publix

Publix offers many options, including the Publix Deli Turkey Breast Dinner, which serves 7-10 and costs $66.59

  • One 4-7 pound Butterball fully cooked turkey breast
  • 2 1/2 pounds of dressing
  • 2 1/2 pounds of mashed potatoes
  • 32 oz. of Publix gravy
  • 29 oz. of Marshmallow Delight
  • 16 oz. of Publix cranberry orange relish

More info.

More Holiday Events in the Triangle

Check out our big list of holiday events in the Triangle, or look at a few of them here:

Friday, December 24, 2021

Saturday, December 25, 2021

Sunday, December 26, 2021

Monday, December 27, 2021

Tuesday, December 28, 2021

Wednesday, December 29, 2021

Thursday, December 30, 2021

Friday, December 31, 2021

Saturday, January 1, 2022

Sunday, January 2, 2022

Monday, January 3, 2022

Tuesday, January 4, 2022

Wednesday, January 5, 2022

Thursday, January 6, 2022

Friday, January 7, 2022

Saturday, January 8, 2022

Sunday, January 9, 2022

Saturday, January 15, 2022

en.wikipedia.org

10-12-2021 · The act of swallowing live goldfish was a fad popularized in American colleges in the late 1930s. History. Although it is not clear how the fad emerged, various people have made claims. A 1963 letter to The New York Times claimed that it was started by a ...

10-12-2021

The act of swallowing live goldfish was a fad popularized in American colleges in the late 1930s.[1]

History

Although it is not clear how the fad emerged, various people have made claims. A 1963 letter to The New York Times claimed that it was started by a man named Lothrop Withington Jr.—grandnephew of the noted genealogist Lothrop Withington—who was a freshman at Harvard University and did so to win a $10 bet[2] as part of a bid to become class president.[1][3] The stunt started a competition between multiple universities such as Penn, MIT, and Harvard in an attempt to surpass one another.[2][3] Women also took part in the trend, as in April 1939 when Marie Hensen from the University of Missouri School of Journalism became the first woman widely known to partake in it.[1][2]

The activity even prompted the establishment of the International Goldfish Gulping Association (IGGA), which sought to determine and enforce competition standards.[4] The last title on record went to Clark University's Joe Deliberto, who sucked down 89 goldfish.[5] Critics of goldfish swallowing soon emerged, such as a poem condemning the practice in the Boston Herald by Eva Williams Raymond[6] and the Society for the Prevention of Goldfish Eating, established in the spring of 1939.[7]

Although once widely practiced, the stunt is rare today, but has made appearances in recent entertainment. In 2000, Jackass star Steve-O swallowed a live goldfish, only to regurgitate it moments later.[8] It has even evolved into an Internet challenge called "The Goldfish Challenge", not to be confused with the challenge involving Goldfish crackers, which has earned the disapproval of PETA, citing evidence that the practice caused the animals "needless pain".[2] Additionally, according to The Atlantic, goldfish gulping had become a "fixture of collegiate hazing rituals", and regularly listed as offenses in lawsuits against fraternities and sports teams,[5] notably a lawsuit against 5 upperclassmen and an additional member of a former swim team in the University of Virginia.[9]

In 2014, Jack Blowers, a 20 year old from the United Kingdom was fined £200 and banned from owning pet animals for a year by the RSPCA for gulping down two goldfish, both of which survived, alongside aquarium water, fish food, and gravel as part of a Neknomination video on Facebook.[10] In 2019, a 21 year old New Jersey man was arrested and charged with cruelty to animals, improper telephone communications, and being a fugitive from justice for more than 26 months[11] after allegedly swallowing his ex-girlfriend's goldfish in her dorm room at Louisiana State University and sending a photograph of his feces, with the caption, "Found your fish".[12] In October 2020, the LSU goldfish incident was expunged from his record.[13]

Another possibility in the origins of goldfish swallowing comes from Chicago bartenders, most notably Matt Schulien (who performed magic while tending bar at his family's restaurant). He would cut up carrots to look like goldfish tails. When performing the stunt, bartenders like Schulien would reach into a bowl of goldfish kept behind the bar while palming the carrot piece, placing that in between their pursed lips, using their tongues to lever it up and down to mimic the actions of a live fish, finally swallowing the carrot piece.[14] The trick dates back to the 1920s, and some people believe that the fad could have been started by college students fooled by the trick.[7][15]

According to the Smithsonian National Museum of American History, goldfish swallowing was such a craze at universities during the early 20th century that it made appearances in several news publications, including The New York Times and the Washington Post.[1] An article in April 1939 in the Los Angeles Times called it goldfish gulping and showed a photo of someone mid-act.[1] According to The Nashua Telegraph, a dance mimicking the goldfish gulping fad was also introduced among students, termed "doing the goldfish".[16]

Legislation

The stunt became so popular that Massachusetts State Senator George Krapf filed a bill to "preserve the fish from cruel and wanton consumption."[6]

See also

  • Panty raid
  • Phonebooth stuffing
  • Consumption of Tide Pods
  • Flagpole sitting

References

  1. ^ a b c d e Meyer, Amelia (January 12, 2011). "1939: The year of goldfish gulping". National Museum of American History Behring Center. Smithsonian National Museum of American History. Retrieved March 13, 2019.
  2. ^ a b c d Clark, Laura. "The Great Goldfish Swallowing Craze of 1939 Never Really Ended". Smithsonian Magazine. Retrieved 2018-04-30.
  3. ^ a b "College Bros in the 1930s Were the Champs of Goldfish Swallowing". Ripley's Believe It or Not!. 2018-02-13. Retrieved 2018-04-30.
  4. ^ "Albert E. Hayes, Jr. '42, Crowned New Champion Of Intercollegiate Goldfish Swallowers Yesterday" (PDF). The Tech. 59 (16). Cambridge, Massachusetts: Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 1939-03-31. Retrieved 2021-05-15.
  5. ^ a b Weiss, Haley (2019-01-26). "This Is What Happens When You Drunkenly Swallow a Live Catfish". The Atlantic. Retrieved 2021-05-15.
  6. ^ a b Burgheim, Richard A. (6 May 1952). "Goldfish Swallowing: College Fad Started Here, Spread Over World". The Harvard Crimson. Retrieved 27 May 2018.
  7. ^ a b Andrews, Stefan (2019-02-05). "The Hottest Challenge on 1930s College Campuses - Swallowing Goldfish". The Vintage News. Retrieved 2021-05-15.
  8. ^ Steadman, Ian. "How long can a goldfish survive if you swallow it?". New Statesman. Retrieved 2018-05-21.
  9. ^ "Settlement reached in UVa swim team hazing lawsuit". San Diego Union-Tribune. 2016-03-29. Retrieved 2021-05-15.
  10. ^ Withnall, Adam (2014-07-24). "Neknomination goldfish swallowing 'prank' sees 20-year-old Jack". The Independent. Retrieved 2021-05-15.
  11. ^ Hermann, Adam (2019-01-10). "N.J. man who allegedly ate pet fish arrested after more than two years on run". PhillyVoice. Retrieved 2021-05-15.
  12. ^ Seldon, Aja (2019-01-10). "Man eats ex-girlfriend's pet fish, sends photo with caption 'found your fish'". KRON4. Retrieved 2021-05-15.
  13. ^ "Bizarre: Man accused of eating LSU student's pet fish, arrested two years later". WBRZ. 2019-01-08. Retrieved 2021-05-15.
  14. ^ "Not Funny Sleights --- Live Magic Fades". Chicago Tribune. Chicago, Illinois. 2012-01-19. pp. 5–6. Retrieved 2021-05-15 – via Newspapers.com.
  15. ^ Lasher, Micah (1996). The Magic of Micah Lasher: More Than Fifty Tricks That Will Amaze and Delight Everyone --- Including You. A Fireside Book. Akemi Yoshida. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster. p. 173. ISBN 0-684-81390-4.
  16. ^ "Pretty Soon It May be Safe for a Goldfish to Go to College". Nashua Telegraph. Nashua, N.H. 1939-04-14. p. 15. Retrieved 2021-05-15.

External links

  • Goldfish swallowing at Bad Fads Museum
  • College Fads from The St. James Encyclopedia of Popular Culture
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