Frequent Bowel Movements: Causes, Diagnosis & Treatment- VyWhy

Last updated on 2021-12-24 04:12:21

2022-09-26

Frequent bowel movements is a condition in which a person defecates more often than usual. There are many possible causes, including eating spoiled food, bacterial infection and side effects of a…

Frequent bowel movements is a condition in which a person defecates more often than usual. There are many possible causes, including eating spoiled food, bacterial infection and side effects of a medication. Treatment is usually with an over-the-counter medicine.
Frequent Bowel Movements

Frequent bowel movements is a condition in which a person defecates (eliminates waste from the bowel) more often than usual. There is no “normal” number of bowel movements. Many healthcare providers agree that healthy bowel movement frequency can range from three times a day to three times a week. However, your 'normal' pattern may be different from these numbers. To say that a person’s bowel movements have become more frequent is based on an increase in that person’s usual pattern, not on a standard definition that applies to everyone.

The two main bowel movement conditions are constipation (fewer than three bowel movements per week) and diarrhea (more than three movements of loose stools per day).

Who is affected by frequent bowel movements?

Frequent bowel movements occur in both males and females of any age.

Some cases of frequent bowel movements last for a short time only and are not a cause for concern. These can be caused by digestive upset from eating spoiled, fatty or spicy food, a food that is not tolerated, or an intestinal “bug” that clears in a day or two.

Other possible causes of frequent bowel movements include an increase in physical exercise, certain medications like antibiotics or metformin, or a change in the diet (more fiber, water, fats or sugars). Bowel movements may return to the usual after the person adapts to these changes or makes modifications to his or her diet.

When the person has other symptoms to go along with the greater number of bowel movements, there may be other causes, including the following:

  • Bacterial infection
  • C. difficile infection (which can be serious if untreated)
  • Viral infection
  • Parasitic infection, such as from worms or protozoa
  • Diverticulitis (the small pockets along the wall of the colon fill with stagnant fecal material and become inflamed)
  • Inflammatory bowel disease (a group of disorders, including Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, that cause irritation and swelling of the digestive tract)
  • Pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas)
  • Celiac disease (an autoimmune disease that causes sensitivity to gluten, a protein found in grains such as wheat, rye or barley)
  • Cancer of the colon or elsewhere in the digestive tract
  • Food allergies
  • Gallbladder problems
  • Lactose intolerance (the inability to digest lactose, the sugar primarily found in milk and dairy products)
  • Irritable bowel syndrome (a disorder of the colon or lower bowel with symptoms that include abdominal pains or cramps)
  • Side effects of medications (including antacids, laxatives, stool softeners)
  • Foods and beverages, including certain herbs and herbal teas, alcohol and caffeine
  • Use of antibiotics, which can upset normal bacteria in the gut
  • Bowel obstruction
  • Complications of intestinal or abdominal surgery
  • Complications of cancer treatments such as chemotherapy or radiation therapy

In cases in which a cause for frequent bowel movements is not known, the doctor will ask you the following:

  • The time of your last bowel movement
  • How often you urinate
  • The consistency of stool (watery or shaped)
  • If there is blood around or in the stool
  • If you have bleeding from the rectum
  • If you are dizzy or have cramps, pain, fever or nausea
  • What foods and drinks you consume
  • If you have had any recent changes in your weight
  • The medications you take
  • If and when you have traveled recently

The doctor will conduct a physical examination and may order blood and stool tests, urinalysis and X-rays.

Mild cases of diarrhea can be treated with an over-the-counter medicine, such as Pepto-Bismol®, Imodium A-D® and Kaopectate®. These are available as liquids or tablets. Follow the instructions on the package.

Note: do not take antidiarrheal medicines if a bacterial infection or parasites are the suspected cause (symptoms include fever or bloody stools). It is important to allow bacteria or parasites to pass through the digestive system.

Contact your doctor if you have frequent bowel movements and any of the following symptoms:

  • Bloody stools or bleeding from the rectum
  • Very bad-smelling stools
  • Unintended weight loss
  • Severe or chronic (long-term) diarrhea
  • Acute severe diarrhea after hospitalization or after taking antibiotics
  • Painful, swollen or bloated abdomen
  • Abdominal cramps
  • Painful bowel movements
  • Incontinence (an inability to control bowel movements)
  • Urgent need to have a bowel movement
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Body aches
  • Fever
  • Chills

Last reviewed by a Cleveland Clinic medical professional on 06/05/2018.

References

  • International Foundation for Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders. Common Causes of Chronic Diarrhea. (https://iffgd.org/lower-gi-disorders/diarrhea/common-causes.html) Accessed 7/15/2020.
  • American Academy of Family Physicians. Anti-diarrheal Medicines: OTC Relief for Diarrhea. (https://familydoctor.org/antidiarrheal-medicines-otc-relief-for-diarrhea/amp/) Accessed 7/15/2020.
  • National Cancer Institute. Gastrointestinal Complications (PDQ®) – Patient Version. (https://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/treatment/side-effects/constipation/GI-complications-pdq) Accessed 7/15/2020.
  • American College of Gastroenterology. Diarrheal Diseases – Acute and Chronic. (https://patients.gi.org/topics/diarrhea-acute-and-chronic/) Accessed 7/15/2020.
  • Mitsuhashi S, Ballou S, Jiang ZG, et al. Characterizing Normal Bowel Frequency and Consistency in a Representative Sample of Adults in the United States (NHANES). Am J Gastroenterol. 2018;113(1):115-123.
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Clotrimazole vaginal cream - Cleveland Clinic

CLOTRIMAZOLE (kloe TRIM a zole) is an antifungal medicine. It is used to treat yeast infections of the vagina. This medicine may be used for other purposes; ask your health care provider or …

CLOTRIMAZOLE (kloe TRIM a zole) is an antifungal medicine. It is used to treat yeast infections of the vagina.

This medicine may be used for other purposes; ask your health care provider or pharmacist if you have questions.

COMMON BRAND NAME(S): Gyne-Lotrimin, Mycelex

What should I tell my health care provider before I take this medicine?

They need to know if you have any of these conditions:

  • diabetes
  • frequent infections
  • HIV or AIDS
  • an unusual or allergic reaction to clotrimazole, other medicines, foods, dyes or preservatives
  • pregnant or trying to get pregnant
  • breast-feeding

How should I use this medicine?

This medicine is for use in the vagina. It may also be applied to the external areas of skin around the vagina to decrease itching and discomfort. Do not take by mouth. Wash hands before and after use. Read package directions carefully before using. Do not use your medicine more often than directed. Do not stop using this medicine except on your doctor's advice.

Talk to your pediatrician regarding the use of this medicine in children. While this medicine may be used in girls as young as 12 years for selected conditions, precautions do apply.

Overdosage: If you think you have taken too much of this medicine contact a poison control center or emergency room at once.

NOTE: This medicine is only for you. Do not share this medicine with others.

What if I miss a dose?

If you miss a dose, use it as soon as you can. If it is almost time for your next dose, use only that dose. Do not use double or extra doses.

What may interact with this medicine?

Do not use any other vaginal products without telling your doctor or health care professional.

This list may not describe all possible interactions. Give your health care provider a list of all the medicines, herbs, non-prescription drugs, or dietary supplements you use. Also tell them if you smoke, drink alcohol, or use illegal drugs. Some items may interact with your medicine.

What should I watch for while using this medicine?

Tell your doctor or health care professional if your symptoms do not start to get better within a few days.

It is better not to have sex until you have finished your treatment. This medicine may damage condoms or diaphragms and cause them not to work properly. It may also decrease the effect of vaginal spermicides. Do not rely on any of these methods to prevent sexually transmitted diseases or pregnancy while you are using this medicine.

Vaginal medicines usually will come out of the vagina during treatment. To keep the medicine from getting on your clothing, wear a mini-pad or sanitary napkin. The use of tampons is not recommended since they may soak up the medicine. To help clear up the infection, wear freshly washed cotton, not synthetic, underwear.

Side effects that you should report to your doctor or health care professional as soon as possible:

  • allergic reactions like skin rash, itching or hives, swelling of the face, lips, or tongue
  • pain or trouble passing urine
  • vaginal pain

Side effects that usually do not require medical attention (report to your doctor or health care professional if they continue or are bothersome):

  • vaginal irritation, itching or burning

This list may not describe all possible side effects. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

Where should I keep my medicine?

Keep out of the reach of children.

Store at room temperature below 30 degrees C (86 degrees F). Do not freeze. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date.

NOTE: This sheet is a summary. It may not cover all possible information. If you have questions about this medicine, talk to your doctor, pharmacist, or health care provider.

Hysterosalpingogram (HSG): Procedure, Recovery & Results

Hysterosalpingogram. A hysterosalpingogram is an X-ray dye test that allows your provider to see your uterus and fallopian tubes. It can help your provider diagnose fertility problems arising …

A hysterosalpingogram is an X-ray dye test that allows your provider to see your uterus and fallopian tubes. It can help your provider diagnose fertility problems arising from having blocked fallopian tubes.
  • Overview
  • Test Details
  • Results and Follow-Up
  • Additional Details
Hysterosalpingogram
  • Overview
  • Test Details
  • Results and Follow-Up
  • Additional Details
  • Back To Top

A hysterosalpingogram (HSG) is an X-ray dye test used to diagnose problems related to fertility. During an HSG, an X-ray records images of your uterine cavity and fallopian tubes while they’re filled with a special dye. An HSG can help your provider spot issues in your reproductive anatomy that may prevent you from getting pregnant. These issues include blocked fallopian tubes and an irregularly shaped uterus.

When is a hysterosalpingogram performed?

Your provider will plan your procedure so that it happens during the first two weeks of your menstrual cycle — after your last period has ended but before you ovulate. This timing reduces the chance that you’ll be pregnant or menstruating during the procedure.

Who shouldn’t get a hysterosalpingogram?

You shouldn’t get an HSG if you’re pregnant or if you have a pelvic infection.

When would a hysterosalpingogram be needed?

An HSG can help your provider see if your fallopian tubes are open or blocked. This information can help your provider diagnose fertility problems. Open fallopian tubes allow a clear path for conception to occur. Sperm travel through fallopian tubes to fertilize an egg. The fertilized egg (embryo) travels through your fallopian tubes to your uterus (womb), where it can grow and develop into a healthy fetus.

Blocked fallopian tubes prevent these processes from happening and are a leading cause of infertility.

An HSG can also allow your provider to:

  • Check the success of a tubal ligation or tubal reversal: An HSG can show whether a tubal ligation procedure successfully closed your fallopian tubes so that you can’t get pregnant. It can also show if the procedure was successfully reversed.
  • Plan for further imaging: An HSG can show irregularities in your uterus (fibroids, abnormal shape) that your provider can use to plan for further imaging, including sonohysterography and hysteroscopy. A sonohysterography can further define the results of an HSG and provide a final diagnosis, while hysteroscopy can treat specific conditions involving your uterus.

Nowadays, hysterosalpingogram is used only to determine if the tubes are open, as other less complicated and more complete tests can be done to study the uterus.

Who performs a hysterosalpingogram?

Your gynecologist, a radiologist, or a reproductive endocrinologist can perform an HSG. Afterward, a radiologist will assess your X-rays and write a report communicating findings to your physician.

With an HSG, a dye fills your uterine cavity and fallopian tubes. The dye creates an outline of your uterus and fallopian tubes that stands out on an X-ray. If the X-ray shows the dye flowing through your fallopian tubes, they’re open. If the dye meets a barrier that prevents the flow, your fallopian tubes are blocked.

What to expect before a hysterosalpingogram?

Your provider will review your medical history to ensure you’re a good candidate for HSG. If you’re tracking your luteinizing hormone (LH) levels, your provider may review the results of your LH test to be sure that you’re not pregnant. Your provider will check whether you’re allergic to any parts of the dye solution used during the HSG.

Your provider will discuss any risks with you. The risks are minimal with HSG.

How do I prepare for a hysterosalpingogram?

Follow your provider’s instructions to prepare for your procedure. Your provider may recommend that you:

  • Take over-the-counter medicine for pain an hour before your procedure.
  • Take antibiotics beforehand to prevent infection.

Arrange for someone to drive you home after your HSG. You may feel up to driving yourself, or you may experience cramping that makes driving difficult. It’s a good idea to have someone to assist, just in case.

What to expect during a hysterosalpingogram?

An HSG takes less than five minutes. You’ll be able to go home the same day of your procedure.

During the procedure, your provider will inject a solution with dye into your uterus and fallopian tubes while an X-ray records images.

Preparing for the dye injection

  1. You’ll lie on a table, with your knees bent and legs open, as if you were having a pelvic exam. The machine taking the x-ray (fluoroscopy machine) will be positioned above the table.
  2. Your provider will insert a tool called a speculum into your vagina that will widen it, allowing your provider to access your cervix.
  3. Your provider will clean your cervix and insert a small catheter in the cervical canal and into your uterus. The catheter may be a thin plastic tube called a cannula. Or, your provider may use a thin plastic tube with a balloon at the end. The balloon inflates once it’s inside your body to hold the tube in place for the dye injection.

Injecting the dye

  1. Your provider will remove the speculum, and you will then be asked to straighten your legs flat on the table.
  2. Your provider will slowly pump the dye solution into your uterus while the radiology technician operates the fluoroscopy machine over your pelvic area. You may feel cramping at this point. If your fallopian tubes are blocked, they may slightly stretch from the pressure.
  3. Your provider may place you in different positions to assess how the solution moves through your fallopian tubes.
  4. If your fallopian tubes are open, the dye should spill out and be seen to spread close to your bowel (it will then get absorbed by your body without consequences). If they are blocked, the dye won’t spill out.

After enough X-ray pictures have been taken, your provider will remove the cannula or plastic tube with the balloon from your body, without reinserting the speculum.

Is a hysterosalpingogram painful?

Mild pain or discomfort is common with an HSG, both during the procedure and afterward. You may feel cramping when your provider inserts the dye solution into your uterus. You may experience more cramping when your tubes are blocked.

The cramping may last anywhere from five minutes after your procedure to a few hours. It may feel mild or moderate. Taking over-the-counter NSAIDs can help ease your cramps.

What to expect after the test?

After the test, you may need to wear a pad to catch the extra dye solution as it leaks from your vagina. Often, the discharge is sticky and contains small amounts of blood. You may also notice side effects, such as:

  • Cramps.
  • Dizziness.
  • An upset stomach or nausea.
  • A small amount of vaginal bleeding for a day or two.

Depending on your comfort, you may resume your everyday activities immediately after your HSG.

What are the risks of this test?

An HSG uses radiation to record X-ray pictures, but the amount of radiation is minimal. An HSG isn’t considered risky. Rare complications may include:

  • Infection.
  • Injury to your uterus.
  • An allergic reaction to the dye solution.

Your provider will tell you your results and advise you on next steps. If the HSG shows blockage, your provider may recommend additional procedures like a laparoscopy to further diagnose and treat the problem. Or, they may recommend fertility treatments that don’t require your fallopian tubes to be clear, like in vitro fertilization (IVF).

When should I call my doctor?

Call your provider if you notice any of these signs, which may indicate an infection:

  • Fever.
  • Chills.
  • Fainting.
  • Vomiting.
  • Heavy vaginal bleeding.
  • Foul-smelling vaginal discharge.
  • Severe cramping in your abdomen.

“Tubal flushing” refers to the process of injecting dye into your uterus and fallopian tubes, as with an HSG, but without doing an X-ray. Some studies suggest that tubal flushing improves fertility, especially during the first three to six months following the dye injection. Research shows that conception rates increase when the dye solution contains what’s known as an oil-soluble contrast medium in particular.

Still, these studies are of varying quality. More research is needed before HSG can be considered a fertility treatment as well as a diagnostic procedure.

The dye solution can potentially clear minor blockages and increase your chance of becoming pregnant. More research is needed to prove this theory.

The most uncomfortable side effect of an HSG test is cramping. Your provider may recommend that you take over-the-counter pain medicines for a few days after your HSG to help ease your symptoms. You may notice a sticky vaginal discharge where the dye leaves your body, but these symptoms eventually resolve.

Is it safe to get pregnant right after an HSG test?

Generally, it’s safe to try to become pregnant within a few days following an HSG. Ask your provider, to be sure.

A note from Cleveland Clinic

A hysterosalpingogram can help your provider spot irregularities in your uterus or fallopian tubes that might prevent you from becoming pregnant. Blocked fallopian tubes are a leading cause of infertility. The results of your HSG can help your provider get one step closer to determining what’s making it difficult for you to conceive. Ask your provider about how your test results will shape next steps.

Last reviewed by a Cleveland Clinic medical professional on 01/08/2022.

References

  • Chalazonitis A, Tzovara I, Laspas F, Porfyridis P, Ptohis N, Tsimitselis G. Hysterosalpingography: technique and applications. (https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19632497/) Curr Probl Diagn Radiol. 2009;38(5):199-205. Accessed 1/08/2021.
  • Dreyer K, van Rijswijk J, Mijatovic V, et al. Oil-based or water-based contrast for hysterosalpingography in infertile women. (https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/nejmoa1612337) N Engl J Med. 2017;376(21):2043-2052. Accessed 1/08/2021.
  • Simpson WL Jr, Beitia LG, Mester J. Hysterosalpingography: a reemerging study. (https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16549607/) Radiographics. 2006;26(2):419-431. Accessed 1/08/2021.
  • van Rijswijk J, van Welie N, Dreyer K, et al. Tubal flushing with oil-based or water-based contrast at hysterosalpingography for infertility: long-term reproductive outcomes of a randomized trial. (https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32553471/) Fertil Steril. 2020;114(1):155-162. Accessed 1/08/2021.
  • Wang R, Watson A, Johnson N, Cheung K, Fitzgerald C, Mol BWJ, Mohiyiddeen L. Tubal flushing for subfertility. (https://www.cochrane.org/CD003718/MENSTR_tubal-flushing-subfertility) Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2020, Issue 10. Art. No.: CD003718. Accessed 1/08/2021.
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Cleveland Clinic is a non-profit academic medical center. Advertising on our site helps support our mission. We do not endorse non-Cleveland Clinic products or services. Policy

Cleveland Clinic is a non-profit academic medical center. Advertising on our site helps support our mission. We do not endorse non-Cleveland Clinic products or services. Policy

HPV Vaccine: Schedule, Side Effects & Who Can Get It

The HPV vaccine protects against certain cancers caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. HPV infection can cause cancer of the cervix, vagina, vulva, penis, anus and throat. It can also cause genital warts. HPV is a common virus that is spread through skin-to-skin or sexual contact. The HPV vaccine is recommended for people ages 9 to 26 ...

The HPV vaccine protects people from a common sexually transmitted virus called HPV or human papilloma virus. There are about 40 types of HPV that can spread through sexual contact. It's so common that 80% of sexually active people will have HPV at some point in their lives. Most infected individuals will never know they have it because it doesn't cause any symptoms. Some HPV infections can progress to cancer later in life.

HPV infections that do not go away can cause:

The HPV vaccine protects against the spread of HPV infections and reduces the risk for developing cancers caused by HPV.

What does the HPV vaccine do?

The HPV vaccine protects against six strains of the HPV virus that have been shown to cause cervical cancer as well as vagina, vulvar, anus, penile and throat cancers. Each year, there are about 35,000 cases of HPV-related cancer diagnosed. The most common among women is cervical cancer. The most common among men is throat cancer.

Who should get the HPV vaccine?

The current recommendations for getting the HPV vaccine are:

  • Children and adults ages 9 to 26 years: The HPV vaccination works best when given between the ages of 9 and 12 years old. Getting vaccinated at a young age provides the best protection against HPV cancers. HPV vaccination is recommended for all children and adults through 26 years old who have not been fully vaccinated.
  • Adults ages 27 to 45 years: The HPV vaccination is not recommended in adults ages 27 through 45 years. The vaccine is less beneficial to people in this age range because more people have already been exposed to the virus. In some cases, your healthcare provider may recommend getting the vaccine as an adult.

Who should not get the HPV vaccine?

People should not get the HPV vaccine if they:

  • Are pregnant.
  • Have had severe reactions to any ingredients in the vaccine or to a previous dose of the HPV vaccine.

Tell your healthcare provider about any severe allergies you have, including yeast or latex allergies. People with moderate to severe illnesses may be asked to wait to get the vaccine until they are well.

Can you get the HPV vaccine at any age?

The HPV vaccine is the most effective when given before age 13. The vaccine can be given to individuals through age 26, but it's better to get it before ever becoming sexually active. Research has showed that young teens have a better immune response to the vaccine than those in their later teens.

HPV is a group of more than 200 viruses. About 40 of these are spread through sexual contact. Of these 40, about 12 types can cause certain cancers. There are three safe and effective HPV vaccines available worldwide:

  • Gardasil® 9: This is the only vaccine currently being used in the United States. Gardasil 9 protects against nine types of cancer-causing HPV, including high-risk strains. It can prevent up to 90% of cervical cancers.
  • Cervarix ® and Gardasil ®: These two HPV vaccines are used in other countries and treat certain high-risk strains of HPV. They can prevent around 70% of cervical cancer.

How many shots are there for the HPV vaccine?

The vaccine is given in a series. The number of shots you need varies depending on the age you are at your first dose.

  • Anyone getting the vaccine prior to age 15 needs two doses of the HPV vaccine to be fully protected. They should be given six to twelve months apart.
  • If you are 15 through 26 years old, you need three doses. You will need a second dose one to two months after your first dose. Then you will need a third dose six months after the first dose.

How does the HPV vaccine work?

The vaccine contains a simulation of the virus — not a live virus. It cannot cause cancer or HPV infection. The HPV vaccine stimulates the body to produce antibodies against HPV. When the person is exposed to the real virus, these antibodies can prevent it from creating an infection.

The biggest advantage is reducing your risk for cancers caused by HPV infection. HPV is so common that around 80% of people in the United States will encounter it at some point in their lives. There is no way to know which infection can lead to cancer. Vaccinating against HPV is the best protection available at this time.

What are the risks of getting the HPV vaccine?

There are not many risks associated with getting the HPV vaccine. Like most vaccines, there are mild side effects. There is a risk of severe reaction if you are allergic to latex, yeast or any of the ingredients in the vaccine. Speak with your healthcare provider about any allergies you have.

Like most vaccinations, there are mild side effects that last a short time. No long-term side effects have been found.

Some of the most common side effects of the HPV vaccine are:

Is the HPV vaccine safe?

The vaccine is safe. Before being approved for use, the HPV vaccine was tested in thousands of people around the world. It is always being studied and monitored to ensure there are no serious side effects.

When doses are given at the recommended ages and at the appropriate intervals, it has been shown to prevent 90% of cancer-causing HPV. Research has also shown that fewer teens and young adults are getting genital warts. The number of cervical precancers are decreasing since HPV vaccines have been in use.

How long does the HPV vaccine last?

Currently, there is no indication that the HPV vaccine decreases in effectiveness over time. Researchers will continue to study vaccinated individuals to ensure no booster shots are needed.

It's common to have questions prior to getting a vaccine. Some questions you may want to ask your healthcare provider about the HPV vaccine are:

  • When should I get the HPV vaccine?
  • Are there any side effects of the HPV vaccine?
  • How does the HPV vaccine work?
  • Where is the HPV vaccine given?
  • How effective is the HPV vaccine?
  • Is there any reason to not get the HPV vaccine?

The HPV vaccine only protects you from strains of HPV that you haven’t been exposed to. The vaccine is not meant to treat existing HPV infections.

Should I get the HPV vaccine if I have already had HPV?

Yes, you should still get the HPV vaccine if you have already had HPV. The vaccine can still protect you from the other strains you have not yet had. If you fall within the recommended age range (ages 9 to 26), you should still get the vaccine even if you’ve had an HPV infection.

Do women who have gotten the HPV vaccine still need to have Pap tests?

Yes, women who have gotten the HPV vaccine should still get Pap tests. The vaccine does not protect against all strains of HPV that can lead to cancer. Routine screening for cervical cancer is still recommended as part of a woman’s reproductive health.

Why do men need to get the HPV vaccine?

HPV is spread through sexual contact. There are types of HPV that have been shown to cause cancer in men — specifically cancer of the throat and penis.

Is the HPV vaccine mandatory?

The HPV vaccine is included on the childhood immunization schedule. School enrollment requirements and mandatory vaccinations are decided on a state-by-state basis.

Last reviewed by a Cleveland Clinic medical professional on 07/09/2021.

References

  • National Cancer Institute. Human Papillomavirus (HPV Vaccines). (https://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/causes-prevention/risk/infectious-agents/hpv-vaccine-fact-sheet) Accessed 6/29/2021.
  • Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine. (https://www.cdc.gov/vaccinesafety/vaccines/hpv-vaccine.html) Accessed 6/29/2021.
  • American Cancer Society. Prevent 6 Cancers with the HPV Vaccine. (https://www.cancer.org/healthy/hpv-vaccine.html) Accessed 6/29/2021.
  • American Cancer Society. HPV Vaccines. (https://www.cancer.org/cancer/cancer-causes/infectious-agents/hpv/hpv-vaccines.html) Accessed 6/29/2021.

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CA-125 Blood Test - Cleveland Clinic

A CA-125 test is a blood test that measures the amount of the protein CA-125, also called cancer antigen 125, in a person’s body. CA-125 is a type of biomarker, or a substance in the blood that may be a sign of a condition or disease. A high level of CA-125 can be a sign of cancer, particularly ovarian cancer.

A CA-125 test is a blood test that measures the amount of the protein CA-125, also called cancer antigen 125, in a person’s body.

CA-125 is a type of biomarker, or a substance in the blood that may be a sign of a condition or disease. A high level of CA-125 can be a sign of cancer, particularly ovarian cancer.

However, the test can have both false positive and false negative findings. CA-125 levels can be normal even if a person has cancer, or they can be elevated in a patient who does not have cancer. For this reason, a CA-125 test is not an effective screening for ovarian cancer.

Sometimes, physicians will order a CA-125 test as part of an overall approach to monitoring certain types of cancer – especially during and after treatment for the disease.

It also can be helpful in the early detection of ovarian cancer in women who are at increased risk of getting the disease. This could include factors such as if an immediate family member had ovarian cancer, or if the woman had ovarian cancer in the past.

However, a CA-125 test is rarely useful for women with no symptoms and no risk factors.

The test involves taking a small sample of the patient’s blood for testing. Patients do not need to fast for this test.

Many things other than ovarian cancer can lead to a person having a “positive” test score. These can include a woman having fibroids in the uterus or if she is currently menstruating. Sometimes people will have a high score but may have other types of cancer, such as endometrial, peritoneal, and fallopian tube cancers.

If your doctor thinks you may have ovarian cancer, or thinks you are at increased risk of developing it, a CA-125 test would be just one piece of the approach to monitoring your condition.

If your doctor does order a CA-125 test and the results are positive, he or she will likely order additional tests to learn more. These would include transvaginal ultrasounds and other imaging tests. He or she may also simply decide to repeat the CA-125 test later to see if any changes have occurred.

Last reviewed by a Cleveland Clinic medical professional on 04/30/2018.

References

  • The Centers for Disease Control. Public and Provider Awareness of a CA-125 Test as a Screen for Ovarian Cancer. (https://www.cdc.gov/cancer/ovarian/healthcare/index.htm) Accessed 5/10/2018.
  • National Cancer Institute. Screening Tests. (https://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/screening/screening-tests) Accessed 5/10/2018.

Cleveland Clinic is a non-profit academic medical center. Advertising on our site helps support our mission. We do not endorse non-Cleveland Clinic products or services. Policy

Chlorpheniramine; Phenylephrine Oral drops Solution

CHLORPHENIRAMINE; PHENYLEPHRINE (klor fen IR a meen; fen il EF rin) is a combination of an antihistamine and a decongestant. It is used to treat symptoms of an allergy, cold, or sinus …

CHLORPHENIRAMINE; PHENYLEPHRINE (klor fen IR a meen; fen il EF rin) is a combination of an antihistamine and a decongestant. It is used to treat symptoms of an allergy, cold, or sinus inflammation. It will help relieve runny nose, sneezing, and congestion in the nose. This medicine will not treat an infection.

This medicine may be used for other purposes; ask your health care provider or pharmacist if you have questions.

COMMON BRAND NAME(S): AccuHist, C-Phen, Cardec, Ceron, CP-Dec, Dallergy, Dec-Chlorphen, Ed ChlorPed D, LoHist, Nasohist, PD-Hist D, Rondec, Rondex, Sildec PE, Sonahist, Trigofen, Virdec

What should I tell my health care provider before I take this medicine?

They need to know if you have any of these conditions:

  • asthma
  • diabetes
  • glaucoma
  • high blood pressure or heart disease
  • taking MAOIs like Nardil, Parnate, Marplan, Eldepryl
  • stomach ulcer
  • thyroid disease
  • trouble passing urine or enlarged prostate
  • an unusual or allergic reaction to chlorpheniramine, phenylephrine, other medicines, foods, dyes, or preservatives
  • pregnant or trying to get pregnant
  • breast-feeding

How should I use this medicine?

Take this medicine by mouth. Follow the directions on the prescription label. Use a specially marked spoon or container to measure your medicine. Household spoons are not accurate. Take this medicine with food if it upsets your stomach. Take your medicine at regular intervals. Do not take it more often than directed.

Talk to your pediatrician regarding the use of this medicine in children. While this drug may be prescribed for children as young as 2 years old for selected conditions, precautions do apply. Do not give this medicine to children under 2 years old.

Patients over 60 years old may have a stronger reaction and need a smaller dose.

Overdosage: If you think you have taken too much of this medicine contact a poison control center or emergency room at once.

NOTE: This medicine is only for you. Do not share this medicine with others.

What if I miss a dose?

If you miss a dose, take it as soon as you can. If it is almost time for your next dose, take only that dose. Do not take double or extra doses.

What may interact with this medicine?

Do not take this medicine with any of the following medications:

  • MAOIs like Carbex, Eldepryl, Marplan, Nardil, and Parnate

This medicine may also interact with the following medications:

  • alcohol or any product that contains alcohol
  • barbiturates like phenobarbital
  • medicines for depression, anxiety, or psychotic disturbances
  • medicines for sleep
  • some medicines for cold, cough, or allergy

This list may not describe all possible interactions. Give your health care provider a list of all the medicines, herbs, non-prescription drugs, or dietary supplements you use. Also tell them if you smoke, drink alcohol, or use illegal drugs. Some items may interact with your medicine.

What should I watch for while using this medicine?

Tell your doctor if your symptoms do not start to get better or if they get worse.

You may get drowsy or dizzy. Do not drive, use machinery, or do anything that needs mental alertness until you know how this medicine affects you. Do not stand or sit up quickly, especially if you are an older patient. This reduces the risk of dizzy or fainting spells. Alcohol may interfere with the effect of this medicine. Avoid alcoholic drinks.

Side effects that you should report to your doctor or health care professional as soon as possible:

  • allergic reactions like skin rash, itching or hives, swelling of the face, lips, or tongue
  • breathing problems
  • changes in vision
  • fast, irregular heartbeat
  • fear, anxiety, or restless
  • hallucinations
  • high or low blood pressure
  • seizures
  • trouble passing urine or change in the amount of urine

Side effects that usually do not require medical attention (report to your doctor or health care professional if they continue or are bothersome):

  • dry mouth, nose, or throat
  • headache
  • loss of appetite
  • stomach upset, nausea
  • tiredness

This list may not describe all possible side effects. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

Where should I keep my medicine?

Keep out of the reach of children.

Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F). Keep container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date.

NOTE: This sheet is a summary. It may not cover all possible information. If you have questions about this medicine, talk to your doctor, pharmacist, or health care provider.

Hyperextended Knee: Symptoms, Causes & Treatment

Symptoms of a hyperextended knee include: Pain. Swelling. Trouble moving your knee like you usually can. Instability or feeling like your knee is weaker than usual. Bruising or discoloration. …

A hyperextended knee is an injury that happens when your knee is bent backward beyond its usual limit.

Sports injuries and other traumas apply a lot of force to your knee’s connective tissue (the tendons, ligaments and cartilage that hold it in place and help it move). Any force that pushes your knee further back than its usual limit can cause a hyperextension injury. After your knee is hyperextended, it might feel unsteady or “buckle” when you try to put weight on it.

Knee hyperextensions range from mild cases that you can treat at home to more severe injuries that will need surgery to repair.

Hyperextended knees vs. ACL, PCL MCL and LCL tears

Hyperextended knees, ACL tears and PCL tears are all different knee injuries. They’re all also most commonly caused by sports injuries.

Your ACL (anterior cruciate ligament) and PCL (posterior cruciate ligament) connect your thigh bone (femur) to your shin bone (tibia). They both cross the middle of your knee. Your ACL is at the front of your knee and your PCL runs along the back, behind your knee.

You MCL (medial collateral ligament) and LCL (lateral collateral ligament) are on the sides of your knee. They stabilize your knee and help it move sideways.

It’s possible that an injury can damage one or multiple ligaments in your knee, including during a hyperextension. Severe hyperextensions are common causes of ACL and MCL tears.

However, not all hyperextensions lead to ligament tears, and it’s possible to strain or tear ligaments without hyperextending your knee.

Who gets hyperextended knees?

Anyone can experience a hyperextended knee, but they’re most common in people who play sports.

How common are hyperextended knees?

Hyperextended knees are very common injuries, especially for athletes.

How does a hyperextended knee affect my body?

In addition to symptoms like pain and swelling, it might be hard to use your knee like you usually can after it’s hyperextended. This is especially true if you damaged other parts of your knee like tendons, ligaments or your meniscus when you were injured. Your knee might buckle (feel weak or unstable), and you might not be able to put weight on it like you’re used to.

Don’t “play through the pain” or try to “walk it off” if you hyperextend your knee. Ignoring symptoms can cause a mild injury to become worse, and can lead to more damage inside your knee.

See your healthcare provider if you’re in pain or have trouble moving your knee.

Symptoms of a hyperextended knee include:

  • Pain.
  • Swelling.
  • Trouble moving your knee like you usually can.
  • Instability or feeling like your knee is weaker than usual.
  • Bruising or discoloration.

If you hear or feel a pop inside your knee during your injury, it’s more likely you’ve torn one of your ligaments. Torn ligaments can also be extremely painful and make it hard or impossible for you to use your knee.

What causes hyperextended knees?

Most hyperextensions are caused during sports or other physical activities. Traumas like falling can also cause your knee to hyperextend. Anything that forces your knee backward can cause a hyperextended knee. Picture a football player getting tackled by their legs, or a basketball player landing awkwardly after a jump.

Your healthcare provider will diagnose a hyperextended knee with a physical exam and imaging tests. They’ll look at your knee, talk to you about your symptoms and see how limited your ability to use your knee is.

You’ll probably need at least one type of imaging test, including:

  • X-rays.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
  • A CT (computed tomography) scan.

These will help your provider see the damage inside and around your knee. They’ll also show if you have a more serious injury like a torn ligament.

How your hyperextended knee is treated depends on the severity of your injury. If you only have mild symptoms and didn’t damage anything inside your knee, you should be able to treat your hyperextended knee at home by the following RICE:

  • Rest: Avoid the activity that caused your injury. Don’t overuse your knee while it heals.
  • Ice: Apply a cold compress to your knee for 15 minutes at a time, four times a day.
  • Compression: You can wrap your knee in an elastic bandage to help reduce swelling.
  • Elevation: Prop your knee and leg up above the level of your heart as often as you can.

Over-the-counter NSAIDs like aspirin or ibuprofen can reduce pain and inflammation. Talk to your provider before taking NSAIDs for longer than 10 days. Your provider might suggest exercises to increase the strength and flexibility in the muscles around your knee to help prevent future injuries.

Hyperextended knee surgery

It’s rare to need surgery after a hyperextended knee. However, if the injury that caused your hyperextension damaged tendons like your ACL or PCL, you might need surgery to repair those tears.

Most of the time, surgery to repair damage in your knees is an outpatient procedure, which means you can go home the same day. Your surgeon will perform what’s called a knee arthroscopy, a minimally invasive technique to repair the ligaments inside your knee.

How long does it take to recover from a hyperextended knee?

How long it takes you to feel better depends on how severely your knee was hyperextended and any other injuries you experienced. If your hyperextension didn’t damage anything inside your knee and you don’t need surgery, it should take between a few weeks and a month to recover.

If you need surgery to repair more severe injuries it could take a few months before you can resume all your usual activities.

Talk to your healthcare provider or surgeon about a specific timeline for your recovery.

During sports or other physical activities:

  • Wear the right protective equipment.
  • Don’t “play through the pain” if your knee hurts during or after physical activity.
  • Give your body time to rest and recover after intense activity.
  • Stretch and warm up before playing sports or working out.
  • Cool down and stretch after physical activity.

Follow these general safety tips to reduce your risk of an injury:

  • Make sure your home and workspace are free from clutter that could trip you or others.
  • Always use the proper tools or equipment at home to reach things. Never stand on chairs, tables or countertops.
  • Use a cane, crutches or walker if you have difficulty walking or have an increased risk for falls.

You should expect to make a full recovery after hyperextending your knee. It’s a temporary injury that shouldn’t have long-term impacts on your health or your ability to play the sports you love.

If you experience a severe injury that requires surgery, you should expect to avoid the sport or activity that caused your hyperextension for at least a few months.

Do I need to miss work or school with a hyperextended knee?

If you can do your job or schoolwork seated or without putting additional stress on your injured knee you shouldn’t need to miss work or school while you heal.

Talk to your surgeon or healthcare provider before resuming any physical activities while you’re recovering.

What is the outlook for a hyperextended knee?

The outlook for people with hyperextended knees is very positive. Most injuries don’t require surgery, and you should be able to resume all your usual activities within a few weeks.

Talk to your provider if you’re experiencing symptoms like pain or swelling that get worse after a few days or if you can’t move your knee like you usually can.

When should I go to the ER?

Go to the emergency room if you notice any of the following:

  • Extreme pain.
  • Swelling that’s getting worse.
  • Discoloration.
  • You can’t move your knee at all.

What questions should I ask my doctor?

  • Will I need any imaging tests?
  • Do I have an ACL or PCL tear?
  • How long should I rest and avoid sports and other physical activity?
  • Will I need surgery?

A note from Cleveland Clinic

How much time will I miss? Is this a serious injury? Am I done for the season?

These are all questions that run through your mind when you hyperextend your knee. Fortunately, most hyperextended knees don’t require surgery, and you’ll be able to recover at home with over-the-counter treatments and by giving your body time to rest and heal.

If you do experience a more severe injury — like a ligament tear — you should still make a full recovery and get back to the sports and activities you love.

Last reviewed by a Cleveland Clinic medical professional on 02/16/2022.

References

  • Dean RS, Graden NR, Kahat DH, et al. Treatment for Symptomatic Genu Recurvatum: A Systematic Review. (https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32851107/) Orthop J Sports Med. 2020 Aug 12;8(8):2325967120944113. Accessed 1/4/2022.
  • MARS Group, Cooper DE, Dunn WR, et al. Physiologic Preoperative Knee Hyperextension Is a Predictor of Failure in an Anterior Cruciate Ligament Revision Cohort: A Report From the MARS Group. (https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29882693/) Am J Sports Med. 2018 Oct;46(12):2836-2841. Accessed 1/4/2022.
  • MedlinePlus. Knee injuries and disorders. (https://medlineplus.gov/kneeinjuriesanddisorders.html) Accessed 1/4/2022.
  • Noyes, Frank, Barber-Westin, S, eds. Noyes' Knee Disorders: Surgery, Rehabilitation, Clinical Outcomes. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier; 2017. Accessed 1/4/2022.

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Human Chorionic Gonadotropin, HCG injection

HUMAN CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN (HYOO muhn kor ee ON ik goe NAD oh troe pin) is a hormone. HCG is used for different reasons in men and women. HCG is used in combination with other fertility drugs to increase a woman's chance of pregnancy. In men or adolescent boys, HCG helps the production of testosterone and sperm. ...

HUMAN CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN (HYOO muhn kor ee ON ik goe NAD oh troe pin) is a hormone. HCG is used for different reasons in men and women. HCG is used in combination with other fertility drugs to increase a woman's chance of pregnancy. In men or adolescent boys, HCG helps the production of testosterone and sperm. HCG is also used in male children with cryptorchidism, a specific birth problem of the testes.

This medicine may be used for other purposes; ask your health care provider or pharmacist if you have questions.

COMMON BRAND NAME(S): Novarel, Ovidrel, Pregnyl

What should I tell my health care provider before I take this medicine?

They need to know if you have any of these conditions:

  • asthma
  • cyst on the ovary
  • heart disease
  • migraine
  • kidney disease
  • ovarian cancer or other female-related cancer
  • prostate cancer or other male-related cancer
  • seizures
  • an unusual or allergic reaction to HCG, other hormones, other medicines, foods, dyes, or preservatives
  • pregnant (this medicine should not be used if you are already pregnant)
  • breast feeding

How should I use this medicine?

This medicine is either injected in a muscle, like the thigh or buttocks, or it may be given under the skin instead. Ask your doctor which way is right for you. You will be taught how to prepare and give this medicine. Use exactly as directed. Take your medicine at regular intervals. Do not take your medicine more often than directed.

It is important that you put your used needles and syringes in a special sharps container. Do not put them in a trash can. If you do not have a sharps container, call your pharmacist or healthcare provider to get one.

Talk to your pediatrician regarding the use of this medicine in children. While this drug may be prescribed for male children as young as several months of age for selected conditions, precautions do apply.

Overdosage: If you think you have taken too much of this medicine contact a poison control center or emergency room at once.

NOTE: This medicine is only for you. Do not share this medicine with others.

What if I miss a dose?

It is important not to miss your dose. Call your doctor or health care professional if you are unable to keep an appointment.

For men or boys: If you are giving your own injections, and miss a dose, take it as soon as you remember. If you forget until the next day, skip the missed dose and continue with your schedule. Do not use double or extra doses. Call your doctor if you have any questions.

For women receiving fertility treatment: It is important not to miss a dose, as the success of your fertility treatment depends on proper use of this medication. Call your doctor or health care professional if you are unable to keep an appointment. If you are giving your own injections, do not use double or extra doses. Call your doctor if you have any questions.

What may interact with this medicine?

  • herbal or dietary supplements, like blue cohosh, black cohosh, or chasteberry

This list may not describe all possible interactions. Give your health care provider a list of all the medicines, herbs, non-prescription drugs, or dietary supplements you use. Also tell them if you smoke, drink alcohol, or use illegal drugs. Some items may interact with your medicine.

What should I watch for while using this medicine?

For men or boys: Your doctor must closely monitor you. Call your doctor if you notice any unusual effects.

For women receiving fertility treatments: Your doctor must closely monitor you. Urine samples, blood tess, or ultrasound exams may be used to monitor treatment. If you think you have become pregnant, contact your doctor at once.

Talk with your doctor about limiting alcohol and decreasing tobacco use during your fertility treatments.

Side effects that you should report to your doctor or health care professional as soon as possible:

  • allergic reactions like skin rash, itching or hives, swelling of the face, lips, or tongue
  • breathing problems
  • breast enlargement
  • enlargement of penis and testes
  • nausea, vomiting
  • pelvic pain or bloating
  • sudden increase in height
  • sudden weight gain
  • trouble passing urine or change in the amount of urine

Side effects that usually do not require medical attention (report to your doctor or health care professional if they continue or are bothersome):

  • acne
  • changes in emotions or mood
  • facial hair growth
  • headache
  • pain, irritation or inflammation at the injection site
  • tiredness
  • upset stomach

This list may not describe all possible side effects. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

Where should I keep my medicine?

Keep out of the reach of children.

You may not need to store this medicine at home. If you are taking this medicine at home, ask your pharmacist how to store the product you are using. Throw away any unused medication after the expiration date.

NOTE: This sheet is a summary. It may not cover all possible information. If you have questions about this medicine, talk to your doctor, pharmacist, or health care provider.

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