Why Does My Cat Lick Me? 5 Satisfying Reasons- VyWhy

Last updated on 2021-12-24 04:28:34

2000-01-04

Why does my cat lick me? Is it a sign of affection? Is my cat stressed or anxious? Is it to create a social bond? Discover 5 interesting aspects in this blog!

Why does my cat lick me? A question that cat owners ask but the answers do not satisfy them.

If you are encountering this problem, you are not alone. There are several reasons for your question, “why does my cat lick me”, but most of them are related to affection.

How? Let’s find out!

Why Do Cats Lick You?

There are several reasons why does your cat lick you.

1.Firstly, it is a method of creating a social bond. The younger cats are licked by their mother in affection and this is the way cats grow.

It is not a surprise that cats exhibit the same behaviour when they grow which is quite natural.

Have you ever noticed that cats do not only lick their owners? They lick other cats and animals as well but if other animals retaliate, that is another case.

However, the basic point to be concluded from this is that when cats lick, they simply try to engage with someone (whether it is their owner or some other animal).

Why Does My Cat Lick Me
Image Source – Unsplash | Image Credit – Mikhail Vasilyev

2. Secondly, if your cat licks excessively, then the case might differ but how?

Look, cats also lick when they are anxious or stressed. The excess licking elaborates this.

Now, this is your duty as a cat owner to identify what is the reason your cat is stressed.

What I would suggest is to pay a visit to a vet and discuss the problem. However, it is to note that this is not always the case.

3. Cats like to mark what is theirs so that other cats or animals know that. Well, what does that mean?

If a cat sees you as theirs, the cat may begin to lick you to show you a part of its territory.

Although this behaviour is common but it can be troublesome if you have more than one cat.

There are certain functions that licking serves, such as:

  • Licking is essential for coat maintenance
  • Licking helps to get rid of external parasites
  • Cats cool themselves through licking as well
  • Cats deal with stress through licking

4. How do you show your affection to your pet? “By petting it”. Correct!

Your cat also loves you the way you do. Therefore, it licks you to return the favour. This is the honesty of a cat which is one of its best trait!

5. Cats do see their owners as a part of their family and they try to show it. Your cat attempts to teach you to groom yourself by licking you because it is the same behaviour that the cat received.

Your question that why does my cat lick me should have been addressed till now but if not then we have something special for you.

Why Does My Cat Lick Me Than Bite Me?

Cat Do this to communicate its feelings with you. When your cat licks you then bites you, then you have to pay extra attention towards your cat’s body.

This is because your cat is trying to convey some sort of message to you because (as we discussed earlier) cat consider you a part of its family. So be aware!

The reason your cat licks you have been discussed above. However, there can be various reasons why your cat bites you.

It is to note that sometimes cats bite with affection and sometimes with anger and depression. The two bites are easy to identify and when a cat is angry, its bite will be accompanied by hissing, waning and meows.

Therefore, your cat might lick and then bite you in affection or as a warning sign to stop petting it.

Why Does My Cat Lick Me

Why It Sometimes Hurt When a Cat Licks You?

The reason behind is the black-facing barbs on your cat’s tongue. These barbs are of the same material as a cats claws. This also explains why cats tongue feels like sandpaper.

The barbs play a very important role in the grooming of cats as these easily allow the cat to keep its coat clean from dirt.

It is to note that your cat does not know that it is hurting you by licking as for then it feels good. Your cat is only attempting to display some love.

How To Prevent My Cat From Licking Me?

The cat owners enjoy when their cat licks them if this does not exceed a certain limit. Let me tell you some ways you can discourage your cat from licking you in a way it does not feel that licking is not appreciated.

If you play with your cat, it will play an important role in distracting your cat. This can prevent your cat from licking you if you are engaged in playful activities. I suggest you cat toys such as balls and wands.

What about distracting your cat with a tasty meal? Yes, this would work.

A delicious and healthy meal for your cat can be a good idea if you want to discourage your cat from licking you on your nose, fingers and hairs without ignoring it.

Be patient because patience is the key. Do not get annoyed and never ever try to hit your cat or yell at it because you are its owner and it is your duty to respect its feelings.

Should I Let My Cat Lick Me?

Yes, definitely. This is because this is a sign that your cat feels safe and secure with you and trust you. Do you remember that we discussed that cats consider us a part of their family when we discussed why does my cat lick me?

So why not let them play with us when they enjoy spending time with us?

Is It OK To Let Your Cat Lick Your Face?

There are a few things to consider here. There are certain parasites and bacteria that are present on your cat’s saliva.

Therefore, when your cat will lick you on your face, the parasites and bacteria will transfer as well which can lead to infections.

This is the reason I would recommend you to prevent your cat from licking your face!

Should You Let Your Cat Sleep In Bed With You?

Doctor Steve Weinberg says that it is fine if your cat sleeps with you on your bed because this can lead to a comfortable and a calm sleep at night (because who may feel safer with your cat).

Why Does My Cat Lick Me
Image Source – Unsplash | Image Credit – Chris Abney

Conclusion:

The answer to “why does my cat lick me” has been delivered to you. I hope that your concern is addressed and I assure you that you are not the only one who is searching for the solution to this problem.

Thank You for reading the blog post. For more articles, refer to our website and open the doors of knowledge for yourself!

Our Home Page: WG Blogs

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Covalent Bonding of Water (H2O)

Water is a polar covalent molecule. This is because of the unequal sharing of electrons (due to the difference in electronegativity) between oxygen and hydrogen. In short, here is the summary. An oxygen atom has six electrons and needs two more electrons (according to the octet rule). A hydrogen atom has one electron and needs one more electron (according to the duplet rule). As a result, the ...

If you want a detailed guide on the covalent bonding of water (H2O), you will love this amazing guide I am about to share with you.

But first of all, let’s start with a simple introduction.

In Chemistry, a covalent bond is formed due to the sharing of electrons between atoms. But, why does this “sharing of electrons” take place?

Let me explain. But before that, let’s talk about covalent bonding in detail.

What is Covalent Bonding?

In this type of bonding, the “participating” atoms share electrons with each other to become stable.

Here is what I mean.

In an outermost shell, an atom should have two or eight electrons to achieve the atomic configuration of a noble gas.

Noble gases are unreactive (as they have fully-filled outer shells). So, whenever an atom becomes stable, it is said to have achieved the electronic configuration of a noble gas.

Pretty simple, isn’t it?

Important Note: At this stage, you might be wondering, why not atoms exchange electrons like ionic bonding? Why does this exchange of electrons take place?

The answer is simple, ionisation energy (energy essential to take away an electron).

Elements that have high ionisation energy cannot transfer electrons. Plus, the elements having a low electron affinity cannot take up electrons.

As a result, the atoms of such elements share electrons with each other (to achieve stability).

The two ways in which covalent bonding can be achieved:

  1. The sharing of electrons between atoms of different elements (for example H2O, CH4 and NH3 etc).
  1. The sharing of electrons between atoms of the same elements (for example N2, H2 and O2 etc).

If I talk about water (H2O), we will be talking about the first method.

Covalent Bonding of Water (H2O):

Here’s how it takes place.

If I talk about hydrogen (H1), it has one electron in its outermost shell. To become stable, the hydrogen atom needs one electron to achieve a duplet electronic configuration (the duplet rule).

The Hydrogen atom follows the duplet rule that says: An atom is stable if it has two electrons in its outer shell.

Moving on, the Oxygen atom (O8) has six electrons in its outer shell. Therefore, it needs two more electrons to become stable (achieve octet electronic configuration).

The Oxygen atom follows the octet rule in which the atom completes eight electrons in its valence (outermost) shell.

As you can see in the image above, two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom share electrons with each other to become stable.

Water is a polar covalent molecule. This is because of the unequal sharing of electrons (due to the difference in electronegativity) between oxygen and hydrogen.

In short, here is the summary.

  • An oxygen atom has six electrons and needs two more electrons (according to the octet rule).
  • A hydrogen atom has one electron and needs one more electron (according to the duplet rule).
  • As a result, the oxygen atom shares electrons with 2 hydrogen atoms. This results in the formation of a water molecule (H2O).

To further understand this topic, let’s take a look at another example to understand this concept.

Example: Covalent Bonding of Nitrogen:

This example will help you understand this topic in a better way.

If I talk about the Nitrogen atom (N7), it has seven electrons in total (5 in its valence shell). This means that a nitrogen atom needs three more electrons to become stable.

As a result, two Nitrogen atoms share electrons with each other.

In simple words, a nitrogen atom can fill its octet by sharing three electrons with another nitrogen atom. This results in the formation of three covalent bonds, a so-called triple bond.

Pretty simple, isn’t it?

Further reading:

Ionic Bonding of sodium chloride (NaCl) | Best Guide

Electrolysis Made Simple | Notes

Exothermic and Endothermic reactions | Complete Guide

With this, it is time to move on and talk about the properties of covalent compounds.

Properties of covalent compounds:

Here are the four properties that you should know:

  1. Covalent bonding involves neutral molecules (having no electric charge).

This is the reason that forces of attraction between these molecules are weaker as compared to ionic compounds. Therefore, these compounds are usually volatile gases or liquids.

  1. Covalent compounds (generally) have low melting and boiling point.

Let’s recall from the first property.

As I mentioned above, these compounds are made up of neutral molecules. Plus, the forces of attraction between these molecules are weak.

So, a low amount of heat is required to break these bonds. This explains why they have a low melting and boiling point.

Note: Since the intermolecular forces are weak, covalent compounds are also soft and brittle (because they break or distort with force).

Now, let me tell you about the third property.

  1. Covalent compounds do not conduct electricity.

I have a question for you. What is the basic requirement to conduct electricity?

Ions or electrons.

And if you recall, covalent compounds involve neutral molecules. Since there are no free moving ions or electrons, these compounds do not conduct electricity.

In other words, these compounds do not have charged particles to transport electrons.

Before talking about the next property, let me tell you about polar and non-polar covalent bonds.

In Nonpolar covalent compounds, the electrons are shared equally between the two atoms. For example: In the covalent bonding of Hydrogen (H2), both hydrogen atoms share one electron with each other.

And, Nonpolar compounds are stronger.

On the other hand, polar compounds are different.

A polar compound is one in which the sharing of elections (or the attraction of electrons) is unequal.

An example is the hydrogen chloride molecule (HCl). The bonding between hydrogen and chlorine leans more towards chlorine atoms.

This is because chlorine (Cl) is more electronegative in nature as compared to hydrogen.

  1. Covalent compounds are soluble in organic solvents but insoluble in water.

Here’s why.

Remember that most of the organic solvents are non-polar in nature. And, covalent compounds are also (mostly) non-polar.

Since “like dissolves like”, these compounds are soluble in organic solvents.

And, most of the covalent compounds are insoluble in water.

Since water is a polar solvent, it does not dissolve Nonpolar compounds. Plus, when covalent compounds are dissolved in water, they dissociate into molecules (but not into ions).

This takes us straight to our next topic, types of covalent bonds.

Types of Covalent Bonds:

The covalent bonds, based on the number of shared pairs of electrons, can be classified as:

Let’s take a look at each of them in detail.

Single bonds:

If only one pair of electron is shared between the two “participating” atoms, then we say that a single bond is formed.

In other words, only two electrons are shared in this type of bond.

Note: This is the most stable type of bond but has less density (and is also weaker) than double and triple bonds.

For example, hydrogen chloride (HCl).

A hydrogen atom has one valence electron while a chlorine atom has seven valence electrons. As a result, a single bond is formed between the hydrogen and chlorine atom by sharing one electron.

Double bond:

When two pairs of electrons are shared, we say that a double bond is formed. This type of bond is represented by two dashes (=).

As I mentioned above, this bond is much stronger but less stable than a single bond.

For example, carbon dioxide (CO2). The structural formula is: O=C=O

The carbon atom has four valence electrons while the oxygen atom has six valence electrons. So, each oxygen atom shares two electrons with two electrons on the central carbon atom.

So this forms a double bond.

Triple bond:

If three pairs of electrons are shared, we say that a triple bond is formed. This type of bond is represented by three dashes (≡).

You should know that these are the least stable types of covalent bonds.

An example is the Nitrogen molecule (N2).

A nitrogen atom has five valence electrons and it needs three more electrons to become stable. So in the formation of a nitrogen molecule, each nitrogen atom shares three electrons.

Therefore, a triple bond is formed.

Covalent Bonding vs Ionic Bonding:

When studying this topic, it is important to talk about this question as well.

Well, what is the difference between an ionic and covalent bond?

A covalent bond is formed between non-metals where sharing of electrons takes place. But in ionic bonding, cation (positive ion) and anion (negative ion) are involved where transfer of elections takes place.

Here is some detail for you.

An ionic bond is a type of chemical bond in which the atoms have different electronegativity values from each other. For example, sodium (Na) and chlorine (Cl) form an ionic bond to make NaCl (table salt).

However, in a covalent bond, the atoms are bound to share electrons. For example, if we talk about water (H2O), it is a polar covalent bond. This is because of the unequal sharing of electrons.

Here is a simple table for you to understand this topic in a better way:

Ionic BondsCovalent Bonds
DescriptionTransfer of electronsSharing of electrons
PolarityHighLow
Melting & Boiling pointHighLow
State at room temperatureSolidLiquid or Gas
ExampleH2SO4, NaClH2O, N2

FAQ’s:

Here are some of the questions related to this topic.

Covalent bonding occurs between non-metals. Since both hydrogen and oxygen are non-metals, a covalent bond is formed between them.

This is suggested by the formula of water – H2O. This shows that two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom share electrons with each other to become stable.

Two covalent bonds.

The concept is simple. The oxygen atom shares a pair of electrons with each hydrogen atom. Since there are two hydrogen atoms, two covalent bonds are formed that hold the water molecule together.

Wrapping up:

With this, our topic about the covalent bonding of water (H2O) has come to an end.

Now, it is your turn.

Which part of the topic do you find interesting? Is it related to drawing the structure of water (H2O), or is it about the difference between ionic and covalent bonds?

Either way, do let me know.

If you have any questions, you can drop them below. Thank You for staying with me till the end. Stay tuned for more.

[Best Guide]: Molar Mass in Periodic Table

How to find the molar mass on the periodic table? To find the molar mass, we are going to do four simple steps: Identify the element(s) Use the periodic table to find the A r value(s) of the element; Multiply the number of atoms with the Ar value; Add the values (if possible) Let me explain all this to you with the help of some examples: The molar mass of …

If you want to learn, how to calculate the molar mass in periodic table, you will love this step-by-step explanation.

But first of all, let’s start with a simple introduction.

In chemistry, the molar mass of a compound (represented by M = m / n) is the mass of the substance (in grams), divided by the number of moles of the substance.

Let me make it simple for you.

Definition of Molar Mass:

Let’s suppose you have a scale of 12 units. Now, the carbon-12 isotope has a mass of exactly 12 units. So the relative mass of one molecule of a compound is said to be the molar mass of that compound.

Note: Do you know the difference between molar mass and relative molecular mass? Molar mass is the mass of Avogadro’s number of molecules (6.02 × 1023).

You can also say that it is the mass of one mole of a substance and is represented in grams (g/mol to be exact).

Molecular mass (also known as molecular weight) is also the mass of one molecule of a substance. It is represented in amu/u. However, the numerical values of both of them are the same.

For example, the molecular mass of 1 H2O molecule is 18 a.m.u. Similarly, the mass of 1 mole of H2O molecule is 18g.

Pretty simple, isn’t it?

But before telling you how to calculate the molar mass using the periodic table, let me tell you what a periodic table is.

Periodic Table:

The periodic table of chemical elements is a table that displays the chemical elements. As you may know, these elements are arranged by (increasing) atomic number (number of protons in the nucleus of the atom).

With this, it is time to move on and talk about the calculation of molar mass.

How to find the molar mass on the periodic table?

To find the molar mass, we are going to do four simple steps:

  1. Use the periodic table to find the A r value(s) of the element
  1. Multiply the number of atoms with the Ar value
  1. Add the values (if possible)

Let me explain all this to you with the help of some examples:

The molar mass of compounds:

  • Molar mass of sulfuric acid (H₂SO₄):

Recall the three steps mentioned above.

[1st step]: First of all, we will identify all the elements in this compound. From the formula H2SO4, we can say that this compound has three elements:

Hydrogen, sulfur and oxygen.

[2nd step]: Now, let’s use the periodic table to find the Ar values of these elements.

Hydrogen → 1

Sulfur → 32

Oxygen → 16

When you have used the periodic table to calculate the Ar values, move on to the third step.

[3rd step]: From the formula (H2SO4), we can say the following:

Hydrogen has two atoms (suggested by H2). Moreover, sulfur has only one atom (shown by S), and oxygen has four atoms (shown by O4).

So now, we are going to multiply the number of atoms with their Ar values that we found out in step 2. In simple words, we are going to do this: (Ar of the element x number of atoms of the element).

For hydrogen: (1 x 2) = 2

For Sulfur: (32 x 1) =32

For Oxygen: (16 x 4) = 64

[4th step]: Finally, you are going to add all the values to get your molar mass. In this case, it will be:

2 32 64 = 98 g/mol

Now, let’s take a look at some other examples as well.

  • The molar mass of silver nitrate (AgNO3)

[1st step]: From the formula, can you find out what elements are present in silver nitrate?

We have silver (Ag), nitrogen (N) and oxygen (O). With this, it is time to move on to the second step.

[2nd step]: Here are the Ar values of these elements:

Silver→ 107

Nitrogen→ 14

Oxygen→ 16

[3rd step]: Now, we are going to use this formula:(Ar of the element x number of atoms of the element).

For silver: (107 x 1) = 107

For nitrogen: (14 x 1) = 14

For oxygen: (16 x 3) = 48

[4th step]: Now, we are going to add these values to get the molar mass of silver nitrate (AgNO3)

107 14 48 = 169 g/mol

Here is another example for you.

  • The molar mass of Aluminium oxide (Al2O3)

[1st step]: What elements are present in aluminium oxide? After looking at the formula, you will say:

Aluminium and oxygen. When we know this, it is time to move on to the second step.

[2nd step]: Here are theAr values of these two elements:

Aluminium→ 27

Oxygen→ 16

[3rd step]: Now, we are going to use this formula:(Ar of the element x number of atoms of the element).

For Al: (27 x 2) = 54

For O: (16 x 3) = 48

[4th step]: Now, the molar mass would be:

54 g/mol 48 g/mol = 102 g/mol

Summary: To find the molar mass in periodic table, we do four steps. First of all, we identify the elements in the compound. For example, the elements in AgCl are silver and chlorine.

Then, we find the Ar values of the elements. Then, we apply the formula: (Ar of the element x number of atoms of the element). Finally, we add all the values to get the molar mass in g/mol.

How to convert molar mass to moles?

When studying this topic, it is important to learn this calculation. But first of all, let me introduce moles to you.

Mole: A mole is a mass of a substance that consists of 6.023 x 1023 particles of the substance. In simple words, it is the SI unit (International System of Units) for the amount of substance.

To convert molar mass to moles for a substance, we divide the mass of the substance by its molar mass. This is represented by this formula:

Moles = (Mass of the substance) / (Molar mass)

Further Reading:

Covalent Bonding of water (H2O) | Must Read

Ionic bonding of NaCl | Sodium Chloride

Electrolysis Made Simple | Best Guide

Here is a simple example.

Q: The molar mass of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) is 40 g/mol. How many moles are present in 90 g of NaOH?

Solution:

Recall the formula for moles:

The number of moles = Mass / Molar mass

Moles = 90 / 40 = 2.25 moles

So this is how you can use mass and molar mass to calculate moles. But, how can you calculate the molar mass using moles?

To do so, we are simply going to rearrange the above formula:

Molar mass = Mass / Moles

Here is an example.

Q: What is the molar mass of CH4 (methane) if there are 0.623 moles in a 10 g sample?

Here is the solution:

The formula is: Molar mass = mass / moles

Molar mass = 10 / 0.623

= 16.05 g/mol

So this was the simple concept about these conversions.

Molar Mass – Complicated problems:

When you are given the formula, things become much easier. Agree?

But, what if you have to deduce the formula first before calculating the molar mass? Here is what I mean.

The question says: What is the molar mass of calcium phosphate?

The first thing to note over here is that calcium phosphate is an ionic compound (a compound formed between a positive and a negative ion).

Now, here is the exact process that you will use to find the formula of ionic compounds:

  • Identify the ions (cations and anions)

In this case, we have two ions. The cation (positive ion) is calcium, and the anion (negative ion) is phosphate.

The calcium ion has a 2 charge. This is because it is in the second group of the periodic table (the group number shows the number of charges on the ions).

Calcium ionCa2

Moving onto the anion. The anion, Phosphate (PO4), has a charge of 3-. Here’s how.

The valency of O is 2 (as it needs two more electrons to complete its outer shell). Since there are 4 oxygen atoms, we can say: (2 x 4) = 8

Moving on, the valency of P is 5. So the net valency of the phosphate ion would be: (8 – 5) = 3

Phosphate ionPO₄³⁻

This takes us straight to the next step.

  • Write the ions separately

This process is simple. From the first step (where you have identified the ions), just simply write down the ions in front of each other. (Look at the image above for reference).

Ca2 PO₄³⁻

  • Cross multiply their powers

Now simply, cross multiply the powers to get the final formula. In simple words, exchange the powers of both ions.

So the formula of calcium phosphate would be: Ca3(PO4)2

Now, you can simply calculate the molar mass of this compound.

The molar mass of calcium phosphate: (40 x 3) (31 x 2) (16 x 8) = 310 g/mol

Now, here is another question for you.

Q: What is the molar mass of Vanadium (V) Hydrogen Phosphate?

First of all, let’s identify the ions.

This compound is made up of vanadium (V) cations and hydrogen phosphate anions. Here is what I mean:

Vanadium (V) cationV5

Hydrogen Phosphate anionHPO42-

Note: The hydrogen phosphate anion is derived like this: H PO43-HPO42-

Now, let’s write down the ions separately and cross multiply (exchange) the powers.

V5 HPO42-

So, the formula for vanadium (V) hydrogen phosphate will be: V2(HPO4)5

Now, we can calculate the molar mass of this compound (using the steps I mentioned above).

Ar of Vanadium→ 50.9

Ar of Hydrogen→ 1

Ar of Phosphorus→ 30.9

Ar of Oxygen→ 15.9

Molar mass: (50.9 x 2) (1 x 5) (30.9 x 5) (15.9 x 20) = 579.3 g/mol

Wrapping Up:

With this, our topic about molar mass in the periodic table has come to an end. I shared the exact step-by-step strategy that you can use to calculate the molar mass of any compound.

Now I turn it over to you.

Which part of this topic do you find the most interesting? Do let me know in the comments below.

Just to summarise, the molar mass is the mass of the instance divided by the number of moles of the substance. Thank you for reading. Stay tuned for more.

Formal Letter Sample | GCE O Level (1123)

15-01-2000 · O Level Formal Letter Sample: You are advised to write between 200 and 300 words. Total marks for this part: 30. Task: You return to your house one day to find it has been broken into and many of your possessions have been stolen. You decide to write a letter to the police to report the robbery. Write your letter.

15-01-2000

When it comes to letter writing, you need to make sure that your concepts are clear.

In this article, you will go through some responses for O Level formal letter writing.

The formal letter (related to the business letter) requires you to write for a directed (formal) purpose and address external parties such as clients, customers, organisations and others.

Enough introduction, let’s first discuss the question of the directed writing (formal letter sample) for which we will discuss the candidate responses.

Paper 1 – Directed Writing:

Format:

First of all, let’s discuss the format.

  1. Address the (concerned) person

This is going to be the first thing that you will do – Address the concerned person properly. For example: “Dear Sir” or “Dear Madam”.

Note: If you are asked to start in a specific way, then you will follow the guidelines. For example, if you are asked to start your letter with “Dear officer”, then you should start in that way.

This takes us straight o the next point, writing the subject.

After greeting, you are going to write the subject. But, what does this mean? Let me explain.

In simple words, a subject is a brief one-line summary (10-20 characters) that defines the purpose of the letter. Here are a couple of examples for you.

Example 1: “Letter to the editor about mistakes in the magazine”.

Example 2: “Letter to the transport supervisor complaining about the bus conductor”.

After writing the subject, you are going to write the introduction.

This is going to be the first paragraph of your letter.

Here, you are going to introduce the purpose (reason for writing). In other words, you are going to tell what the letter is about.

You may also give some background information (if necessary).

After the introduction, you are going to make three body paragraphs. But why?

Take a look at a question. You will notice that the examiner gives you three content points. You are going to make one paragraph for each point.

In these paragraphs, you are simply going to provide (relevant) details about the topic.

This is going to be the last paragraph of your formal letter. In this paragraph, you are simply going to summarise your points.

Note that you should not introduce new points (ideas) in the conclusion.

After the concluding paragraph, you are simply going to end with:

Yours sincerely,

Note: You may also use: Yours faithfully, Yours truly and Best Regards

Name

Signature

Date

O Level Formal Letter Sample:

You are advised to write between 200 and 300 words. Total marks for this part: 30.

Task:

You return to your house one day to find it has been broken into and many of your possessions have been stolen. You decide to write a letter to the police to report the robbery.

Write your letter. You must include the following:

  • at what time and for how long you were away from the house when the robbery took place
  • detailed information about the most valuable items taken
  • any clues you have noticed and how you think the police might be able to catch the thieves

Cover all three points in detail. Make sure that your letter is informative and helpful for the police. Start your letter with “Dear Sirs” and make sure to provide a suitable ending.

Related: O Level Report Writing Sample (Directed Writing)

Now, let’s view a grade A response and a grade C response and discuss their strengths and weaknesses.

The Grade A Response:

Dear Sirs,

My name is XYZ. I am writing to report a robbery that took place on 20th September. On the day in question, I was shopping in the market between 09:00 am and 11:00 am. When I returned to my house, I found out that the door was broken and the furniture inside was mostly missing and the remaining untidy.

I immediately checked the entire house and unfortunately, I found out that some valuable items were long gone. I pondered over for some time and I found out that the items that were stolen included a diamond bracelet and a silver watch. The silver watch is made up of pure 925 silver and the diameter of the watch is 2 cm (with Roman numerals making the numbers). The bracelet is a simple white gold bangle and it has diamonds engraved at its perimeters.

Furthermore, I noticed some fingerprints on my bedroom mirror. A piece of red cloth (fairly untidy) caught in the door handle was also found indicating that the thieves were in a hurry. Moreover, there were footprints in my garden as well.

I believe that you might be able to trace the robbers by viewing the cameras in the town. You may also visit the nearby jewellery shops to find out whether the bracelet is sold or not.

To conclude, I hope that you can quickly solve the robbery and locate my belongings. I will help you in any way I can. You can contact me on my number and even can pay a visit to the address that is mentioned at the back of the envelope this letter came with.

Thank you

Cordially

Name

Signature

Date


Language marks = 14 out of 15

Task fulfilment marks = 15 out of 15
Total marks awarded = 29 out of 30

The Examiner Response:

This letter is a perfect sample to discuss how to attempt o level formal letter. The writer does not make the mistake of making the letter narrative.

The task fulfilment is appreciable as the purpose, audience and situation are well known to the writer.

The purpose is indicated in the opening of the last paragraph which is good. When it comes to the format, it is acceptable but it is not perfect – “Cordially” is quite formal enough keeping in mind the situation of the letter, whereas ‘Yours faithfully’ is what the examiner expects.

The tone and the register are excellent, and the candidate attempts to be polite and informative which is good.

The provision of the contact number and the address is sensible and this indicates the cooperative approach of the writer (but it was not mandatory).

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Comments from the author:

Remember that the examiner does not know you. He has no idea about what you look like, your performance in your school and other things about you.

You have to introduce yourself and the best way is to provide the examiner what he wants.

The mentioned three bullet points is what you need to focus on. The introductory paragraph and the concluding paragraph only ask to re-emphasize the purpose.

In the examiner response, it is mentioned that the format of the letter is acceptable but it is not perfect, so keep that in mind.

Source: Cambridge Assessment International Education

With that being said, let’s discuss a weaker response:

Further reading:

Narrative Writing Sample

Informal letter | GCE O Level | Sample and Format

Account Writing | O Level English (1123)

Candidate Response – Grade C:

To the Police

From XYZ

09 October 2012

Dear Sir,

Robbery and Vandalism at my place

I am writing this letter to you to express my situation after the robbery and vandalism that occurred at my place yesterday.

Time and Circumstances:

It all took place last night while I was at my friend’s villa for his. birthday. At about 11:00 pm, my neighbours ringed me and said that he has heard some disturbing sounds coming from my house. During that time, being drunk, I did not pay much attention to what he was saying. All that came to my mind was my dog scratching things around the house looking for food.

Items stolen:

When I returned back home, I noticed that all the windows were shattered apart from the main entrance window. I rushed into the house to check my inventory. I found out that all the money I kept for my vacations were missing including my laptop and a “personal digital assistant”. Moreover, my racing bike worth a hefty was also no longer in my garage.

Clues that might be helpful:

After having a closer look at my house, I noticed some clues that might be helpful: there was some blood residue on my dog’s chin. There were some footprints in my muddy garden and some marks of my bike on the ground. By tracking their digital prints and with the help of clues your professional team will find from the house, I believe that you will catch the robbers with ease.

I will be grateful to you if my situation will be taken into consideration.

Thanks

Your’s Faithfully

XYZ

Language marks: 12 / 15

Task fulfilment marks: 11 / 15

Total Marks: 23 / 30

Response from the author:

This letter is a very good sample to discuss when it comes to o level formal letter writing. After reading the letter, one can deduce that the candidate was very capable and could have written a much better response.

The candidate uses decent vocabulary but that is not enough. Headings are provided which are not required because you have to make paragraphs. The candidate lacks proper preparation of the format.

The candidate has some sort of understanding of the situation but expressions such as “express my situation” are a little vague. Unfortunately, the letter lapses into a narrative which is a matter of concern.

“Some blood residue” and similar tenses make the letter very good but things such as “last night” are vague and they require some sort of elaboration.

The language is clean and the paragraphs have been well-connected with each other. What other strengths and weaknesses do you find in this response, tell me in the comments.

Conclusion:

The o Level formal letter is discussed in this article. I hope that your concerns are clear. Feel free to ask any questions.

Two samples are discussed above. The reason being the multiple dimensions we came across while attempting the formal letter.

Remember to follow the instructions your examiner has provided. Instead of using fancy difficult words, try to attempt your directed writing naturally. Only then you can secure your marks.

Directed writing comprises 30 marks (15 for language and 15 for task fulfilment). It is all about understanding the purpose of your writing (in this case, the formal letter sample).

Thank you very much for reading and staying with me till the end and stay tuned for more.

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